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Table 2 Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence in the general population and potential determinants for HEV seropositivity

From: Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence among the general population in a livestock-dense area in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional population-based serological survey

Determinants N Seroprevalence (%)a Crude ORb [95% CI]c Adjusted ORb,d,e [95% CI]c
Age (years)
 20–30 50 10.0 Ref.   Ref.  
 30–40 179 15.1 1.60 [0.58–4.39] 1.49 [0.54–4.13]
 40–50 432 19.2 2.14 [0.82–5.55] 2.01 [0.77–5.26]
 50–60 661 25.1 3.02 [1.18–7.72] 2.58 [1.00–6.70]
 60–70 938 37.5 5.40 [2.13–13.73] 4.22 [1.63–10.91]
  > =70 162 38.3 5.58 [2.10–14.80] 4.15 [1.53–11.24]
Gender
 Female 1,318 25.6 Ref.   Ref.  
 Male 1,104 32.3 1.39 [1.16–1.65] 1.21 [1.00–1.47]
Educational level
 High 733 24.8 Ref.   Ref.  
 Medium 1,080 26.9 1.12 [0.90–1.38] 1.10 [0.87–1.38]
 Low 609 36.5 1.74 [1.37–2.20] 1.36 [1.04–1.76]
Diet without pork meat
 No 2,360 28.8 Ref.   Ref.  
 Yes 47 19.2 0.59 [0.28–1.22] 0.72 [0.33–1.59]
Missing 15      
Ever smoked
 No 1,034 26.5 Ref.   Ref.  
 Yes 1,388 30.3 1.21 [1.01–1.45] 0.96 [0.79–1.17]
Childhood in study region
 No 580 32.2 Ref.   Ref.  
 Yes 1,816 27.4 0.79 [0.65–0.97] 0.85 [0.68–1.07]
Missing 26      
Childhood on pig farm
 No 1,928 27.6 Ref.   Ref.  
 Yes 468 32.5 1.26 [1.02–1.57] 1.21 [0.94–1.55]
Missing 26      
Performed jobs on farm during childhood
 No 1,090 26.9 Ref. - Ref.  
 Yes 1,220 29.7 1.15 [0.96–1.38] 1.02 [0.83–1.27]
Missing 112      
Number of pigs within 1000 m of residential address (tertiles)
 Lowf 807 32.1 Ref.   Ref.  
 Intermediateg 808 26.9 0.78 [0.63–0.96] 0.79 [0.63–0.99]
 Highh 807 27.1 0.79 [0.64–0.98] 0.83 [0.66–1.04]
  1. aIncluding both positive and borderline samples (anti-HEV IgG ratio > = 0.90)
  2. bOdds Ratio
  3. c95% Confidence Interval
  4. dORs are adjusted for age, gender, educational level, diet without pork meat, ever smoked, childhood in study region, childhood on pig farm, jobs on farm during childhood and number of pigs within 1000 m of residential address
  5. eAdjusted ORs and 95% CIs were calculated for cases without missing answers (N = 2,301)
  6. fNumber of pigs within 1000 m < = 1,003
  7. gNumber of pigs within 1000 m > 1,003 and < = 5,771
  8. hNumber of pigs within 1000 m > 5,771