Skip to main content

Table 1 Prevalence and Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection

From: Seroprevalence and determinants of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the university teaching hospital, Lusaka, Zambia

  UNIVARITE ANALYSIS MULTIVARIABLE ANALYSIS
Characteristics Response (%) n Prevalence (%), category total (n) OR 95% CI P-VALUE OR 95% CI P-VALUE
SOCIO-DEMOGRAHIC
AGE IN YEARS
 15-24 (18.7) 77 11.7 (77) 3.11 1.21-7.96 0.02 0.11 0.00-7.41 0.30
 25-34 (59.6) 245 4.08 (245) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 35-49 (21.7) 89 5.62 (89) 1.40 0.46-4.21 0.55 1.91 0.25-14.7 0.53
LEVEL OF EDUCATION
 Up to secondary* (51.7) 209 6.22 (209) 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.60 0.10-3.57 0.57
 Tertiary (48.3) 195 4.62 (195) 0.73 0.30-1.75 0.48 1.00 1.00 1.00
MARITAL STATUS
 Married (88.3) 361 4.99 (361) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.46 0.01-271 0.89
 Never been married (5.38) 22 18.2 (22) 3.46 1.08-11.1 0.04 10.9 0.06-1955 0.37
 Divorced/Widowed (6.36) 26 7.69 (26) 1.91 0.41-8.79 0.41 1.00 1.00 1.00
EMPLOYED
 In Employment (62.7) 257        
 Unemployed (37.3) 153        
EMPLOYMENT TYPE
 Farming and construction (2.7) 7 28.6 (7) 8.97 1.47-54.6 0.02 15.5 0.23-1019 0.20
 Professional/Administrative (63.6) 164 6.90 (87) 1.66 0.54-5.11 0.38 0.71 0.08-6.02 0.75
 Trading/other businesses (33.7) 87 4.27 (164) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
INCOME
 Below K3000 (37.6) 94 10.64 (94) 3.13 0.95-10.3 0.06    
 Between K3000 and K5000 (43.6) 109 3.67 (109) 1.0 1.00 1.00    
 Above K5000 (18.8) 47 2.13 (47) 0.57 0.06-5.25 0.62    
RESIDENCE
 High cost residential area (18.5) 76 3.95 (76) 0.94 0.23-0.13 0.93 2.84 0.20-39.3 0.44
 Medium cost residential area (39.2) 161 3.73 (161) 2.30 0.64-8.18 0.20 0.40 0.03-5.77 0.50
 Low cost residential area (42.3) 174 8.62 (174) 1.0 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
OBSTETRICAL FACTORS
GESTATIONAL AGE
 First Trimester (20.5) 84 3.57 (84) 0.68 0.18-2.53 0.56    
 Second Trimester (32.6) 134 8.21 (134) 1.64 0.68-4.00 0.28    
 Third Trimester (47.0) 192 5.18 (193) 1.0 1.00 1.00    
PARITY
 No child (first pregnancy) (64.5) 262 4.62 (262) 1.77 0.23-13.9 0.59    
 One child (29.3) 119 9.09 (119) 0.83 0.09-7.80 0.87    
 Two and above (6.16) 25 3.47 (25) 1.0 1.00 1.00    
BEHAVORIAL/LIFESTYLE FACTORS
CONTACT WITH CATS
 Yes (10.0) 41 7.32 (41) 1.31 0.37-4.59 0.68 7.81 0.99-61.8 0.05
 No (90.0) 369 5.69 (369) 1.0 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
CONTACT WITH DOGS
 Yes (22.2) 91 6.59 (91) 1.18 0.45-3.07 0.73    
 No (77.8) 319 5.64 (319) 1.00 1.00 1.00    
EATING MEAT
 Yes (97.6) 401 5.99 (401) 1.00 1.00 1.00    
 No (2.43) 10 0 (10) 2.65*10-06 0 0.99    
LENGTH OF COOKING MEET
 Under 30 min (12.6) 49 4.08 (49) 0.62 0.14-2.82 0.54    
 Within 30 to 60 min (55.9) 218 6.42 (218) 1.00 1.00 1.00    
 Within 60 to 120 min (18.0) 70 4.29 (70) 0.65 0.18-2.34 0.51    
 Over 120 min (13.6) 53 3.77 (53) 0.57 0.13-2.60 0.47    
EATING CURED MEAT
 Yes (87.0) 347 5.19 (347) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.02-43.6 1.00
 No (13.0) 52 11.5 (52) 2.38 0.90-6.32 0.08 1.00 1.00 1.00
EATING RAW VEGETABLES
 Yes (81.3) 334 5.69 (334) 1.00 1.00 1.00    
 No (18.7) 77 6.49 (77) 1.15 −4160-0.04 0.79    
DRINKING UNPASTEURIZED MILK
 Yes (8.76) 36 8.33 (36) 1.53 0.43-5.41 0.51    
 No (91.2) 375 5.60 (375) 1.00 1.00 1.00    
CO-INFECTION
HIV STATUS
 Positive (16.8) 69 8.70 (69) 1.69 0.65-4.43 0.28 0.39 0.04-3.47 0.40
 Negative (82.2) 338 5.33 (338) 1.0 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  1. Associations were calculated with Chi-square, and Fisher’s exact test where appropriate, whereas GLM for binary outcome reporting odds ratios was used for the univariate analysis
  2. * = the category ‘two and above’ was created because the participants who had three to eight (maximum) children were few hence were not very comparable
  3. Variables, ‘eating meat’, parity, ‘length of cooking meat’, ‘drinking unpasteurised milk’ and income were omitted in the final model due to their small numbers