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Table 4 Factors associated with penicillin non-susceptibility among children in Kibera and Lwak, 2009

From: Pneumococcal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility patterns from two cross-sectional colonization surveys among children aged <5 years prior to the introduction of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine — Kenya, 2009–2010

Characteristic Total number of children N = 694 PCN-nonsusceptible N = 490 (Weighted %; 95% CI) Unadjusted prevalence ratio (95% CI) Adjusted prevalence ratio (95% CI)
Place of residence
 Lwak 155 125 (80.6; 74.4–86.9) Ref ref
 Kibera 469 365 (77.7; 73.9–81.5) 0.96 (0.88–1.06) 0.94 (0.85–1.03)
Serotype group
 NVT 368 267 (74.1; 69.3–79.0) Ref ref
 PCV10 serotype 256 223 (86.6; 81.9–91.3) 1.17 (1.08–1.27)* 1.17 (1.07–1.27)*
Age group
  < 1 years 101 85 (85.1; 77.5–92.7) Ref ref
 1–4 years 523 405 (78.1; 74.2–82.0) 0.92 (0.83–1.02) 0.94 (0.84–1.04)
Number of children aged <5 years in the home
 1 312 241 (76.9; 71.7–82.2) Ref Ref
 2 or more 312 249 (81.2; 76.6–85.9) 1.06 (0.97–1.15) 1.06 (0.97–1.15)
Number of days attending school or daycare per week
 0 357 288 (81.0; 76.5–85.4) Ref Ref
 1 or more 265 201 (77.2; 71.8–82.7) 0.95 (0.87–1.04) 0.94 (0.86–1.04)
Recent illness (within 30 days, compared to those with no illness)
 No cough 297 235 (80.7; 75.9–85.5) Ref Ref
 Cough 327 255 (77.4; 72.3–82.5) 0.96 (0.88–1.05) 0.98 (0.89–1.08)
 No pneumonia 589 460 (78.7; 75.1–82.3) Ref Ref
 Pneumonia 35 30 (85.5; 72.4–98.6) 1.09 (0.93–1.28) 1.07 (0.91–1.27)
 No fast breathing 543 424 (78.9; 69.9–89.8) Ref Ref
 Fast breathing 81 66 (79.8; 69.9–89.8) 1.01 (0.89–1.16) 1.03 (0.89–1.19)
 No fever 345 273 (80.6; 76.1–85.1) Ref Ref
 Fever 279 217 (77.0; 71.4–82.5) 0.95 (0.87–1.05) 0.95 (0.85–1.05)
Penicillin, ampicillin, or amoxicillin use (compared to those with no use)b
 No current use 610 477 (78.6; 75.0–82.2) Ref Ref
 Current usea 14 13 (95.3; 86.1–100) 1.21 (1.09–1.35) 1.22 (1.07–1.39)*
 No use within the past 7 days 572 449 (79.1; 75.4–82.8) Ref Ref
 Within the past 7 days 52 41 (78.3; 65.8–90.8) 0.99 (0.84–1.17) 1.00 (0.84–1.19)
 No use within the past 30 days 501 393 (79.3; 75.4–83.2) Ref Ref
 Within the past 30 days 123 97 (77.7; 69.4–85.9) 0.98 (0.87–1.10) 0.98 (0.86–1.11)
  1. NVT non-vaccine type
  2. *Statistically significant
  3. aCurrent refers to the day of interview
  4. bThe categories of antibiotic use in this table are not mutually exclusive (i.e., “within the past 30 days” include those who reported current use and use within the past 7 days), therefore, the adjusted prevalence ratios “within the past 7 days” and “within the past 30 days” were calculated using separate models which only include one antibiotic use category