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Table 1 Characteristics of surveyed children in Kibera and Lwak, 2009–2010 surveys combined

From: Pneumococcal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility patterns from two cross-sectional colonization surveys among children aged <5 years prior to the introduction of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine — Kenya, 2009–2010

Characteristic Total (N = 1,087) Kibera (N = 740) Lwak (N = 347) P value, Kibera vs. Lwak
Female gender, n (Weighted %; 95% CI) 547 (49.8; 46.5–53.1) 368 (48.2; 44.2–52.2) 179 (51.5; 43.2–55.8) 0.33
Weighted mean age in months (95% CI) 30.8 (29.9–31.8) 28.6 (27.5–29.6) 33.4 (31.8–35.0) <0.0001
Number sampled by age group, n (Weighted %; 95% CI)
  < 1 years 184 (11.6; 10.3–12.9) 158 (15.3)a 26 (7.45; 4.69–10.2) <0.0001
 1–4 years 903 (88.4; 87.1– 89.7) 582 (84.7)a 321 (92.5; 89.8–95.3)
Weighted mean number of months living in the community (95% CI) 28.1 (27.2–29.0) 26.1 (25.0–27.1) 30.4 (28.8–31.9) <0.0001
Weighted mean number of people sleeping in the same room 4.4 (4.3–4.5) 5.1 (4.9–5.2) 3.7 (3.5–3.8) <0.0001
Number of children under 5 years in the home, n (Weighted %; 95% CI)
 1 600 (58.3; 55.2–61.4) 379 (53.1; 49.1–57.1) 221 (64.0; 59.2–68.8) <0.0001
 2 424 (36.1; 33.0–39.1) 326 (43.3; 39.3–47.3) 98 (28.0; 23.4–32.6)
  ≥ 3 63 (5.7; 4.2–7.2) 35 (3.6; 2.4–4.9) 28 (8.0; 5.2–10.8)
Number of days per week the child attends school or daycare per week, n (Weighted %; 95% CI)
 None 618 (51.6; 48.5–54.8) 480 (62.2; 58.3–66.1) 138 (39.9, 34.8–45.1) <0.0001
Tobacco smoke in the home (Weighted %; 95% CI) 132 (13.2; 11.0 –15.5) 71 (9.3; 7.0–11.6) 61 (17.6; 13.6–21.6) 0.0002
Current illnessb (Weighted %; 95% CI)
 Cough 481 (51.2; 48.5 –53.9) 391 (64.2; 61.8–66.7) 90 (33.0; 27.3–38.2) <0.0001
 Runny nose 622 (54.3; 51.2–57.4) 486 (68.0; 64.3–71.6) 136 (39.1; 34.0–44.2) <0.0001
 Fever within 24 h 146 (14.7; 12.3–17.0) 85 (12.2; 9.5–14.9) 61 (17.4; 13.5–21.3) 0.03
Recent illness (within 30 days) (Weighted %; 95% CI)
 Cough 534 (45.6; 42.4–48.7) 413 (55.2; 51.2–59.2) 121 (35.0; 30.1–40.0) <0.0001
 Pneumonia 55 (4.7; 3.3– 6.0) 47 (6.8; 4.7–8.8) 8 (2.5; 0.8–4.2) 0.007
 Fast breathing 136 (12.4; 10.2–14.5) 94 (12.7; 10.0–15.3) 42 (12.0; 8.8–15.4) 0.77
 Fever 464 (40.2; 37.0–43.3) 344 (45.0; 41.0–49.0) 120 (34.7; 29.7–39.7) 0.002
Any antibiotic use (Weighted %; 95% CI)
 Currentb 59 (5.6; 4.1–7.1) 32 (3.6; 2.3–4.9) 27 (7.8; 5.0–10.6) 0.003
 Within the past 7 daysb 201 (18.9; 16.4–21.5) 123 (15.8; 12.9–18.7) 78 (22.5; 18.1–26.9) 0.01
 Within the past 30 daysb 413 (37.7; 34.5–40.8) 289 (20.8; 18.7– 22.9) 124 (16.9; 14.5–19.3) 0.19
  1. a95% confidence not applicable because Kibera sample was stratified by children aged <1 years and 1 to 4 years, and therefore the variance is 0
  2. bCurrent refers to the day of interview. The categories of antibiotic use in this table are not mutually exclusive (i.e., “within the past 30 days” include those who reported current use and use within the past 7 days)