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Table 1 Logistic regression estimates of the unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios of prevalent tuberculosis in the Zambian study sites

From: The association of hyperglycaemia with prevalent tuberculosis: a population-based cross-sectional study

Characteristic Total number (%) Number (%) with prevalent TB Unadjusted OR (95% CI) P-value# Adjusteda OR (95% CI) P-value#
Overall 27,800 (100) 144 (0 · 5) - - - -
Random blood glucose concentration (mmol/L) <5.6 14,741 (53.0) 67 (0.5) 1 0.029 (test for linear trend p = 0.017; test for departure from trend p = 0.164) 1 0.011 (test for linear trend p = 0.006; test for departure from trend p = 0.141)
5.6–6.9 8,628 (31.0) 42 (0.5) 1.06 (0.72–1.56) 1.13 (0.75–1.71)
7.0–8.9 3,447 (12.4) 24 (0.7) 1.51 (0.94–2.41) 1.6 (0.96–2.66)
9.0–11.0 579 (2.1) 9 (1.6) 3.44 (1.7–6.96) 4.31 (2.07–8.97)
>11.0 405 (1.5) 2 (0.5) 1.06 (0.26–4.35) 0.97 (0.13–7.14)
Age (years) 18–24 9,733 (35 · 4) 37 (0 · 4) 1 0 · 004 1 0 · 390
25–29 4,665 (17 · 0) 32 (0 · 7) 1 · 79 (1 · 11–2 · 88) 1.27 (0.75–2.16)
30–34 3,438 (12 · 5) 28 (0 · 8) 2 · 15 (1 · 31–3 · 52) 1.42 (0.83–2.46)
35–39 2,381 (8 · 7) 16 (0 · 7) 1 · 79 (0 · 99–3 · 24) 1.09 (0.57–2.09)
40–49 3,173 (11 · 5) 20 (0 · 6) 1 · 67 (0 · 97–2 · 89) 1.04 (0.56–1.92)
50–59 2,113 (7 · 7) 7 (0 · 3) 0 · 87 (0 · 39–1 · 96) 0.74 (0.32–1.72)
60+ 1,998 (7 · 3) 4 (0 · 2) 0 · 55 (0 · 20–1 · 55) 0.49 (0.16–1.45)
Sex Male 9,265 (33 · 3) 64 (0 · 7) 1 0 · 003 1 0 · 008
Female 18,535 (66 · 7) 80 (0 · 4) 0 · 60 (0 · 43–0 · 84) 0.59 (0.41–0.87)
HIV status Negative 21,103 (82 · 5) 72 (0 · 3) 1 <0 · 001 1 <0 · 001
Positive 4,465 (17 · 5) 66 (1 · 5) 4 · 22 (3 · 00–5 · 92) 3.57 (2.44–5.23)
Body Mass Index (weight(kg)/height2(m)) Healthy weight (18.5–24.9) 16,497 (64.2) 95 (0.6) 1 <0.001 1 <0.001
Underweight (<18.5) 2,604 (10.1) 27 (1.0) 1.87 (1.22–2.89) 1.70 (1.09–2.65)
Overweight (25–29.9) 4,402 (17.1) 13 (0.3) 0.49 (0.27–0.88) 0.56 (0.3–1.05)
Obese (≥30) 2,214 (8.6) 1 (0.1) 0.07 (0.01–0.53) 0.10 (0.01–0.76)
Region Rural, low ARTI 7,712 (27 · 7) 24 (0 · 3) 1 0 · 012 1 0 · 002
Urban (non-Lusaka), low ARTI 6,033 (21 · 7) 34 (0 · 6) 1 · 83 (1 · 02–3 · 29) 2.13 (1.12–4.04)
Urban (non-Lusaka), high ARTI 5,158 (18 · 6) 22 (0 · 4) 1 · 39 (0 · 74–2 · 63) 1.59 (0.81–3.14)
Lusaka, high ARTI 8,897 (32 · 0) 64 (0 · 7) 2 · 34 (1 · 37–3 · 98) 2.88 (1.62–5.11)
  1. TB tuberculosis, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, ARTI annual risk of infection; All analyses accounted for the two-stage clustered sampling design through the use of a logistic regression model with random effects for enumeration area and inclusion of region as a fixed effect, with each region including 4 communities; #Likelihood ratio tests; a23,414 participants included in analysis (299 missing data for age, 2,083 for BMI, 2,232 for HIV status), adjusted for variables shown plus household socioeconomic position and education