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Table 2 Trends in attack rates (95% confidence interval) for typhoid fever per 100,000 Dutch travelers to (sub) tropical regions from 1997 to 2014 per region/country

From: Low and declining attack rates of imported typhoid fever in the Netherlands 1997–2014, in spite of a restricted vaccination policy

  1997–1999 1998–2000 1999–2001 2000–2002 2001–2003 2002–2004 2003–2005 2004–2006 2005–2007 2006–2008 2007–2009 2008–2010 2009–2011 2010–2012 2011–2013 2012–2014 p value for trend
  AR (95% CI) AR (95% CI) AR (95% CI) AR (95% CI) AR (95% CI) AR (95% CI) AR (95% CI) AR (95% CI) AR (95% CI) AR (95% CI) AR (95% CI) AR (95% CI) AR (95% CI) AR (95% CI) AR (95% CI) AR (95% CI)  
All regions 2,79(1,95–3,98) 2,46(1,70–3,54) 2,40(1,69–3,41) 2,03(1,40–2,94) 1,81(1,24–2,65) 1,63(1,11–2,39) 1,52(1,06–2,19) 1,30(0,89–1,90) 1,17(0,79–1,74) 1,04(0,68–1,58) 1,06(0,70–1,60) 1,02(0,67–1,55) 0,88(0,57–1,37) 0,74(0,46–1,19) 0,81(0,51–1,28) 0,87(0,55–1,36) 0.04
Latin Americac 0,39(0,07–2,24) 0,40(0,07–2,27) 0,28(0,04–2,14) 0,49(0,09–2,78) 0,16(0,01–2,10) 0,26(0,03–2,00) 0,43(0,09–2,00) 0,47(0,12–1,92) 0,36(0,08–1,68) 0,17(0,02–1,33) 0,17(0,02–1,32) 0,26(0,05–1,47) 0,18(0,02–1,35) 0,09(0,01–1,27) 0,00(0,00–1,25) 0,00(0,00–1,36) 0.22
 Netherlands Antilles 0,00(0,00–4,88) 0,00(0,00–5,91) 0,00(0,00–6,78) 0,00(0,00–9,07) 0,00(0,00–7,03) 0,00(0,00–6,03) 0,00(0,00–4,52) 0,00(0,00–4,03) 0,00(0,00–3,52) 0,00(0,00–3,59) 0,00(0,00–3,17) 0,00(0,00–3,22) 0,00(0,00–2,87) 0,00(0,00–3,22) 0,00(0,00–3,73) 0,00(0,00–4,38)  
 Surinamb 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,00(0,00–19,87) 0,00(0,00–17,20) 0,00(0,00–15,78) 0,00(0,00–17,20) 0,00(0,00–31,14) 0,00(0,00–76,77)  
Sub-Saharan Africad 0,37(0,03–4,98) 1,21(0,21–6,85) 1,61(0,35–7,53) 2,67(0,73–9,72) 5,61(2,18–14,42)∞ 5,95(2,54–13,93)∞ 5,17(2,21–12,11)∞ 2,51(0,85–7,39) 1,29(0,32–5,24) 1,02(0,22–4,74) 1,06(0,23–4,96) 1,06(0,23–4,94) 1,17(0,29–4,76) 0,65(0,11–3,68) 0,61(0,11–3,48) 0,21(0,02–2,85) 0.04
Arab regione 2,50(1,33–4,70) 2,02(1,07–3,79) 1,62(0,86–3,05) 0,84(0,39–1,84) 0,75(0,35–1,64) 0,70(0,33–1,50) 0,56(0,26–1,22) 0,33(0,12–0,89) 0,20(0,06–0,66) 0,34(0,13–0,89) 0,49(0,23–1,07) 0,51(0,24–1,10) 0,37(0,15–0,89) 0,28(0,10–0,74) 0,23(0,08–0,66) 0,18(0,05–0,59) 0.01
 Turkey 1,38(0,41–4,62) 0,99(0,30–3,31) 0,68(0,20–2,27) 0,21(0,04–1,17) 0,06(0,00–0,76) 0,13(0,02–0,76) 0,09(0,01–0,66) 0,09(0,01–0,67) 0,00(0,00–0,56) 0,00(0,00–0,53) 0,00(0,00–0,53) 0,00(0,00–0,52) 0,00(0,00–0,50) 0,00(0,00–0,47) 0,00(0,00–0,47) 0,00(0,00–0,46) 0.009
 Morocco 20,63(8,31–51,24) 18,48(8,29–41,19) 22,86(10,02–52,15) 15,58(6,06–40,07) 20,00(8,05–49,67) 18,57(7,48–46,12) 15,29(6,16–37,98) 7,84(2,51–24,47) 4,96(1,48–16,62) 5,17(1,76–15,21) 6,86(2,85–16,52) 6,13(2,47–15,23) 4,74(1,77–12,68) 3,95(1,34–11,61) 3,10(0,93–10,37) 2,42(0,60–9,80) <0.0000001
Asiaf 5,38(3,46–8,37) 4,74(2,96–7,59) 5,00(3,23–7,76) 5,01(3,20–7,86) 4,30(2,65–6,98) 3,97(2,36–6,66) 3,98(2,48–6,41) 3,99(2,52–6,30) 4,53(2,91–7,05) 3,99(2,43–6,55) 4,03(2,40–6,77) 3,37(1,97–5,77) 3,00(1,73–5,20) 2,72(1,55–4,80) 3,47(2,06–5,87)a 4,24(2,61–6,89)a 0.26
 Thailand 0,00(0,00–7,39) 0,00(0,00–7,73) 0,00(0,00–7,03) 0,00(0,00–7,07) 0,51(0,04–6,86) 0,45(0,03–6,11) 0,43(0,03–5,80) 0,00(0,00–5,19) 0,00(0,00–5,54) 0,00(0,00–5,16) 0,00(0,00–4,77) 0,00(0,00–4,18) 0,00(0,00–4,07) 0,00(0,00–4,42) 0,00(0,00–5,14) 0,00(0,00–5,65) 0.45
 Malaysia 0,00(0,00–60,62) 0,00(0,00–15,78) 0,00(0,00–11,41) 0,00(0,00–10,48) 0,00(0,00–17,46) 2,78(0,21–37,35) 5,56(0,73–42,38) 3,03(0,40–23,12) 1,28(0,10–17,24) 0,00(0,00–12,80) 0,00(0,00–15,36) 0,00(0,00–13,56) 0,00(0,00–12,95) 0,00(0,00–13,24) 1,49(0,11–20,07) 1,75(0,13–23,59) 0.72
 India 15,09(4,84–47,08) 15,38(4,93–47,99) 34,88(14,90–81,64) 35,71(12,78–99,76) 75,00(29,17–192,70) 27,27(9,28–80,16) 47,62(22,68–99,97) 35,85(16,76–76,66) 38,46(18,32–80,75) 28,83(12,63–65,77) 36,04(17,16–75,66) 36,70(17,48–77,04) 23,53(11,20–49,40) 20,39(9,88–42,08) 21,93(11,26–42,70) 28,72(15,28–53,97) 0.23
 Indonesia 16,15(8,40–31,06) 16,49(7,23–37,64) 23,47(11,73–46,96) 31,11(16,55–58,46) 20,51(10,39–40,48) 16,04(7,19–35,75) 9,60(3,73–24,68) 8,15(3,05–21,78) 7,74(3,01–19,91) 5,68(2,13–15,20) 3,68(1,25–10,82) 2,39(0,71–8,01) 1,74(0,48–6,34) 1,62(0,44–5,90) 1,73(0,47–6,30) 1,56(0,39–6,35) <0.0000001
  1. aNepal outbreak in 2013 among a group of Dutch travelers
  2. ∞) Cluster of family most probably acquired in a hotel in 2003 in Nigeria
  3. bConfidence interval was not calculated, because the denominator was unknown until 2007–2009
  4. cLatin America constitutes Central and South America, including the Caribbean
  5. dSub-Saharan Africa constitutes Western, Middle, Eastern, and Southern Africa
  6. eThe Arab region constitutes Northern Africa and Western Asia, including Turkey
  7. fAsia constitutes Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, and the Indian subcontinent