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Table 1 Characteristics of Dutch cases of typhoid fever acquired in a developing country between 1997 and 2014

From: Low and declining attack rates of imported typhoid fever in the Netherlands 1997–2014, in spite of a restricted vaccination policy

Number of cases 607  
Sex
 Male 330 54.4%
 Female` 277 45.6%
Median age (Interquartile range) 27 (15–38)
Ethnicity by typhoid risk regiona
 Yes 256 42.2%
 No 32 5.3%
 Unknown 319 52.5%
Region of exposure
 Latin Americab 17 2.8%
 Sub-Saharan Africac 37 6.1%
 Arab regiond 124 20.4%
 Asiae 362 59.6%
 Other 55 9.1%
 Unknown 12 2.0%
Top 5 countries of exposure
 Indonesia 120 19.8%
 India 119 19.6%
 Morocco 81 13.3%
 Pakistan 70 11.5%
 Turkey 16 2.6%
 Other 201 33.2%
VFR (Visiting Friends and Relatives)
 Yes 223 36.7%
 No 64 10.5%
 Unknown 320 52.7%
Severity of disease
 Hospitalization 300 49.4%
 No hospitalization 97 16.0%
 Hospitalization unknown 210 34.6%
Vaccination status
 Vaccinated 118 19.4%19.4%
 Non vaccinated 430 70.8%
 Unknown 59 9.7%
  1. aEthnicity by region: region of birth of case or one of case’s parents
  2. bLatin America constitutes Central and South America, including the Caribbean
  3. cSub-Saharan Africa constitutes Western, Middle, Eastern, and Southern Africa
  4. dThe Arab region constitutes Northern Africa and Western Asia, including Turkey
  5. eAsia constitutes Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, and the Indian subcontinent