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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies (continued)

From: Effectiveness, immunogenicity and safety of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine revaccinations in the elderly: a systematic review

Author, year [Ref] Number of study groups Safety assessment Statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics and safety outcomes between primary and revaccination dose of PPSV-23
Prospective cohort studies (n = 10)
 Tobudic, 20121 [31] 1 (longitudinal cohort) 7 day diary (after revaccination dose) Population characteristics: Participants 1 year older at 2nd dose
Safety: no comparison group
 Dransfield, 20121 [23] 2 (1st vs. 2nd dose) not assessed Population characteristics: 2nd dose recipients older, more often white, more severe COPD disease
Safety: −
 Hammitt, 2011 [11] 3 (1st vs. 2nd or 3rd dose) 4 day diary and interview on day 30 Population characteristics: 2nd/3rd dose recipients older, more likely Alaska Natives/American Indians, more often with underlying comorbidities compared to 1st dose recipients
Safety: local AEs and systemic AEs more frequent in revaccination group
 Jackson, 1999 [13] 2 (1st vs. 2nd dose) 13 day diary and telephone interview Population characteristics: 2nd dose recipients more often females and less often with underlying comorbidities
Safety: local AEs more frequent in revaccination group at days 0–2, no differences after 6 days. No differences regarding systemic AEs. Multivariate analysis: revaccination independently associated with risk of sizable local reaction
 Jackson, 2013 [22] 1 (longitudinal cohort) 13 day diary Population characteristics: Participants 3.4–5 years older at 2nd dose
Safety: local AEs and systemic AEs more frequent in revaccination group
 Manoff, 20102 [25] 2 (1st vs. 2nd dose) not assessed Population characteristics: 2nd dose recipients more likely ever smoked
Safety: −
 Musher, 20103 [12] 2 (1st vs. 2nd dose) 14 day diary Population characteristics: 2nd dose recipients more often with underlying comorbidities
Safety: local AEs and systemic AEs more frequent in revaccination group
 Musher, 20113,4 [28] 2 longitudinal cohorts (1st vs. 2nd; 2nd vs. 3rd) 14 day diary Population characteristics: Participants of both longitudinal cohorts were ten years older at 2nd/3rd dose
Safety5: local AEs and systemic AEs more frequent in revaccination group
 Ohshima, 2014 [29] 1 (longitudinal cohort) 14 day diary Population characteristics: Participants were 7.6 years older at 2nd dose
Safety: local AEs and systemic AEs more frequent in revaccination group
 Törling, 2003 [24] 1 (longitudinal cohort) not assessed Population characteristics: Participants were 5.3 years older at 2nd dose and 11% had a new episode of pneumonia
Safety: no comparison group
Retrospective database studies (n = 3)
 Jackson, 2006 [27] 3 (1st vs. 2nd vs. 3rd dose) ICD-9-Codes Population characteristics: 3rd dose recipients were older and had more likely underlying comorbidities
Safety: Presumptive medically attended injection site reaction more frequent in 2nd dose recipients than in 1st dose recipients. No statistically significant differences between 1st dose and 3rd dose recipients
 Shih, 2002 [30] 2 (1st vs. ≥ 2nd dose) ICD-9-Codes Population characteristics: 2nd dose recipients were older, more often white and had higher hospitalizations rates and a higher comorbidity (Charlson) Index
Safety: Mulitivariate analysis: Revaccination independently associated with emergency room visits and office visits if PPSV-23 was administered within 5 years. No association after >5 years.
 Walker, 2005 [32] 2 (1st or 2nd vs. ≥ 3rd dose) ICD-9-Codes and medical records Population characteristics: ≥ 3rd dose recipients were older and had more likely underlying lung diseases
Safety: No differences in risk of medically attended AEs in the different groups
Cross-sectional study (n = 1; telephone interview)
 D’Heilly, 2002 [26] 2 (1st vs. ≥ 2nd dose) Interview 8 months (on average) after vaccination Population characteristics: not reported
Safety: Multivariate analysis: Revaccination independently associated with redness or swelling at injection site during week after vaccination
  1. 1Published as randomized controlled trial but treated as cohort study here; 2Substudy of Musher et al. [12]; 3Musher [28] is extension study of Musher et al. [12]; 4 two longitudinal cohorts: cohort one received 1st dose in 1997 and 2nd in 2007; cohort two received 2nd dose in 1997 and 3rd in 2007; 52nd vs. 3rd dose (1st vs. 2nd dose reported in Musher [12])