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Table 5 Predictors of hospitalization during diagnosis and treatment of active TB cases, notified to Montreal public health between January 1996 -- May 2007, stratified by timing of hospitalization (N = 1852)

From: Predictors of hospitalization of tuberculosis patients in Montreal, Canada: a retrospective cohort study

Characteristics Any initial hospitalization (yes/no) Any hospitalization during treatment (yes/no)
Number of patients (%) Crude OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted ORa
(95% CI)
Number of patients (%) Crude OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted ORa
(95% CI)
Male 536 (54.0) 1.30 (1.07–1.57) - 91 (9.2) 1.08 (0.78–1.49) -
Female 399 (47.4) 1.00   72 (8.6) 1.00  
Age group
 0–19 years 85 (59.4) 2.04 (1.38–3.00) 2.52 (1.63–3.92) 15 (10.5) 2.09 (1.10–3.97) 2.82 (1.38–5.76)
 20–34 years 279 (46.4) 1.00 1.00 32 (5.3) 1.00 1.00
 35–64 years 249 (54.7) 1.39 (1.11–1.73) 1.09 (0.83–1.43) 60 (8.7) 1.64 (1.05–2.56) 1.11 (0.68–1.81)
  ≥ 65 years 258 (66.2) 1.92 (1.47–2.51) 1.13 (0.80–1.59) 58 (14.9) 3.11 (1.98–4.89) 2.19 (1.25–3.85)
Had provincial health insurance #
 Yes 804 (53.6) 1.75 (1.37–2.24) - 149 (9.9) 2.05 (1.24–3.40) -
 No 138 (39.1) 1.00   18 (5.1) 1.00  
Country of birth    -    -
 Canada 196 (61.8) 2.02 (1.48–2.75)   51 (16.1) 2.61 (1.59–4.30)  
 Foreign, low-moderate TB incidence 551 (49.6) 1.16 (0.92–1.47)   85 (7.6) 1.13 (0.72–1.78)  
 Foreign, high TB incidence country 174 (45.8) 1.00   26 (6.8) 1.00  
Immigration, years since arrival
 Foreign-born, unknown arrival date 53 (41.4) 0.41 (0.27–0.63) - 13 (10.2) 0.59 (0.31–1.13) -
 15 or more years 204 (60.4) 0.90 (0.65–1.25)   37 (11.0) 0.64 (0.41–1.01)  
 3–14 years 269 (49.7) 0.58 (0.43–0.77)   39 (7.2) 0.41 (0.26–0.63)  
 0–2 years 199 (41.0) 0.41 (0.30–0.54)   22 (4.5) 0.25 (0.15–0.42)  
 Canadian-born 196 (61.8) 1.00   51 (16.1) 1.00  
Homeless    -    -
 Yes 8 (88.9) 7.46 (0.93–59.66)   2 (22.2) 2.91 (0.60–14.11)  
 No 934 (50.7) 1.00   165 (9.0) 1.00  
Cancer    -    
 Yes 30 (73.2) 2.23 (1.09–4.53)   13 (31.7) 5.00 (2.54–9.84) 3.43 (1.63–7.23)
 No 912 (50.4) 1.00   154 (8.5) 1.00 1.00
Diabetes    -    -
 Yes 98 (74.2) 2.83 (1.88–4.26)   21 (15.9) 2.04 (1.24–3.35)  
 No 844 (49.1) 1.00   146 (8.5) 1.00  
HIV
 Positive 111 (76.0) 3.24 (2.17–4.85) 1.46 (0.90–2.36) 36 (24.7) 3.84 (2.60–5.97) 3.31 (1.96–5.60)
 Negative or unknown 831 (48.7) 1.00 1.00 131 (7.7) 1.00 1.00
Renal disease       -
 Yes 83 (79.1) 3.92 (2.38–6.47) 1.99 (1.10–3.59) 22 (21.0) 2.93 (1.78–4.83)  
 No 859 (49.2) 1.00 1.00 145 (8.3) 1.00  
Liver disease       -
 Yes 105 (68.6) 2.02 (1.40–2.92) - 25 (16.3) 2.14 (1.35–3.40)  
 No 837 (49.3) 1.00   142 (8.4) 1.00  
Ever substance abuse       -
 Yes 176 (70.7) 2.69 (1.99–3.63) - 32 (12.9) 1.60 (1.06–2.42)  
 No 766 (47.8) 1.00   135 (8.4) 1.00  
Number of co-morbidities
 2 or more 316 (77.3) 5.31 (4.04–6.98) 3.56 (2.50–5.07) 76 (18.6) 5.44 (3.64–8.14) 2.90 (1.69–4.96)
 1 242 (53.9) 1.84 (1.46–2.32) 1.43 (1.08–1.89) 51 (11.4) 3.06 (1.99–4.70) 2.17 (1.31–3.60)
 0 384 (38.6) 1.00 1.00 40 (4.0) 1.00 1.00
Ever smoker       -
 Yes 306 (62.6) 1.92 (1.54–2.39) - 61 (12.5) 1.69 (1.21–2.36)  
 No 636 (46.7) 1.00   106 (7.8) 1.00  
TB diagnosis       -
 Pulmonary, Smear+ 447 (72.2) 3.87 (3.02–4.96) 1.48 (1.04–2.09) 70 (11.3) 1.43 (0.97–2.12)  
 Pulmonary, Smear- 257 (41.2) 1.05 (0.83–1.32) 0.65 (0.46–0.90) 47 (7.5) 0.91 (0.60–1.40)  
 Extra-pulmonary 228 (40.5) 1.00 1.00 46 (8.2) 1.00  
Cavitary TB       -
 Yes 230 (68.5) 2.49 (1.92–3.23) 1.75 (1.28–2.40) 25 (7.4) 0.76 (0.48–1.19)  
 No 712 (47.0) 1.00 1.00 142 (9.4) 1.00  
Miliary TB
 Yes 29 (82.9) 5.33 (2.05–13.87) 3.53 (1.26–9.88) 8 (22.9) 3.09 (1.38–6.92) 2.09 (0.88–4.96)
 No 913 (50.3) 1.00 1.00 159 (8.8) 1.00 1.00
Any pulmonary TB-related symptoms
 Yes 853 (55.8) 3.45 (2.63–4.53) 2.12 (1.44–3.11) 149 (9.7) 1.77 (1.07–2.93) -
 No 89 (27.6) 1.00 1.00 18 (5.6) 1.00  
Any systemic TB-related symptoms
 Yes 697 (68.5) 5.18 (4.22–6.36) 3.54 (2.82–4.46) 123 (12.1) 2.44 (1.70–3.50) 1.72 (1.16–2.57)
 No 245 (28.4) 1.00 1.00 44 (5.3) 1.00 1.00
Multidrug or poly-drug resistance
 Yes 26 (78.8) 3.95 (1.61–9.67) 6.98 (2.65–18.30) 8 (24.2) 3.48 (1.54–7.89) 5.55 (2.18–14.14)
 No 914 (51.2) 1.00 1.00 157 (8.8) 1.00 1.00
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aModels adjusted for all reported variables