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Table 4 Associations of sociodemographic and clinical factors with health system’s delay among PTB patients, West Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia

From: Patients’ and health system’s delays in the diagnosis and treatment of new pulmonary tuberculosis patients in West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

Variables N Delayed a
n (%)
Crude OR
(95 % CI)
P value Adjusted OR
(95 % CI)
P value
Sex
 Male 423 236 (55.8) 1.00   1.00  
 Female 283 158 (55.8) 1.00 (0.72–1.39) 0.99 1.11 (0.76–1.61) 0.57
Age
 15–24 197 110 (55.8) 1.00   1.00  
 25–44 291 162 (55.7) 0.96 (0.64–1.42) 0.85 0.85 (0.51–1.44) 0.56
  ≥ 45 218 122 (56.0) 1.03 (0.67–1.58) 0.86 0.85 (0.47–1.53) 0.58
Education
 Literate 295 165 (55.9) 1.00   1.00  
 Not literate 411 229 (55.7) 1.12 (0.81–1.57) 0.47 1.25 (0.78–1.99) 0.35
Occupation
 Civil servant 41 25 (61.0) 1.00   1.00  
 Housewife 39 11 (28.2) 0.21 (0.07–0.58) 0.01* 0.10 (0.02–0.40) 0.01*
 Student 76 43 (56.6) 0.77 (0.33–1.82) 0.56 0.39 (0.11–1.35) 0.14
 Farmer 327 187 (57.2) 0.89 (0.43–1.85) 0.76 0.85 (0.35–2.04) 0.73
 Day laborer 82 47 (57.3) 0.78 (0.34–1.81) 0.57 0.53 (0.17–1.64) 0.27
 Merchant 47 22 (46.8) 0.57 (0.22–1.46) 0.24 0.91 (0.32–2.59) 0.86
 Other 94 59 (62.8) 1.04 (0.45–2.38) 0.92 0.62 (0.19–2.01) 0.43
Place of residence
 Urban 271 144 (53.1) 1.00   1.00  
 Rural 435 250 (57.5) 1.38 (0.97–1.96) 0.07 1.24 (0.80–1.93) 0.33
Monthly family income (Birr) b
 1–400 109 50 (45.9) 0.69 (0.42–1.14) 0.15 0.46 (0.18–1.03) 0.06
 401–800 84 43 (51.2) 0.85 (0.49–1.47) 0.57 0.47 (0.19–1.17) 0.11
  ≥ 801 264 157 (59.5) 1.15 (0.78–1.71) 0.46 0.60 (0.25–1.42) 0.25
 No regular income 249 144 (57.8) 1.00   1.00  
HIV sero- status       
 Positive 82 47 (57.3) 1.05 (0.63–1.74) 0.86 1.33 (0.72–2.46) 0.35
 Negative 616 342 (55.5) 1.00   1.00  
Time travelled to arrive at the nearest health facility
  ≤ 2 h 671 377 (56.2) 1.00   1.00  
  > 2 h 35 17 (48.6) 0.85 (0.41–1.78) 0.67 0.68 (0.31–1.51) 0.35
Formal health providers c       
 Private health facilities 280 137 (48.9) 1.00   1.00  
 Public health centers 342 213 (62.3) 2.00 (1.40–2.85) < 0.001* 2.22 (1.52–3.25) < 0.001*
 Public hospitals 71 34 (47.9) 0.86 (0.48–1.55) 0.63 0.79 (0.43–1.48) 0.47
 Health posts 13 10 (76.9) 4.75 (1.17–19.27) 0.03* 5.86 (1.40–24.39) 0.02*
Forms of PTB
 Smear-positive PTB 334 166 (49.7) 1.00   1.00  
 Smear-negative PTB 372 228 (61.3) 1.64 (1.18–2.27) 0.01* 1.88 (1.32–2.68) < 0.001*
  1. Estimated for random effect = 0.702 (0 .337, 0.965)
  2. a Delayed more than 15 days, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  3. b 1 USD = 22.00 Ethiopian Birr *statistically significant association, PTB pulmonary tuberculosis
  4. c Types of formal-health providers where all patients made their first consultation