Skip to main content

Table 3 Associations of socio demographic and clinical factors with patients’ delay among PTB patients, West Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia

From: Patients’ and health system’s delays in the diagnosis and treatment of new pulmonary tuberculosis patients in West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

Variables N Delayed
n (%)
Crude OR
(95 % CI)
P value Adjusted OR
(95 % CI)
P value
Sex
 Male 423 103 (24.3) 1.00   1.00  
 Female 283 91 (32.2) 1.54 (1.09–2.19) 0.01* 1.25 (0.72–2.15) 0.43
Age
 15–24 197 39 (19.8) 1.00   1.00  
 25–44 291 77 (26.5) 1.45 (0.93–2.28) 0.09 2.27 (0.96–5.38) 0.06
  ≥ 45 218 78 (35.8) 2.30 (1.45–3.64) < 0.001* 2.99 (1.14–7.81) 0.03*
Education
 Literate 295 55 (18.6) 1.00   1.00  
 Not literate 411 139 (33.8) 2. 22 (1.54–3.21) < 0.001* 0.87 (0.44–1.72) 0.69
Occupation
 Civil servant 41 3 (7.3) 1.00   1.00  
 Housewife 39 14 (35.9) 7.16 (1.82–28.08) 0.01* 1.04 (0.13–8.29) 0.97
 Student 76 18 (23.7) 4.33 (1.16–16.06) 0.03* 1.09 (0.15–7.75) 0.93
 Farmer 327 102 (31.2) 5.82 (1.73–19.61) 0.01* 0.87 (0.17–4.32) 0.87
 Day laborer 82 21 (25.6) 4.46 (1.22–16.24) 0.02* 0.61 (0.98–3.78) 0.59
 Merchant 47 9 (19.1) 2.97 (0.72–12.11) 0.13 0.58 (0.90–3.74) 0.57
 Others 94 27 (28.7) 5.46 (1.52–19.57) 0.01* 0.65 (0.99–4.33) 0.66
Marital status
 Married 386 109 (28.2) 1.00   1.00  
 Single 205 44 (21.5) 0.72 (0.47–1.08) 0.12 1.02 (0.44–2.33) 0.96
 Divorced 73 24 (32.9) 1.27 (0.73–2.21) 0.39 1.23 (0.52–2.88) 0.64
 Widowed 42 17 (40.5) 1.92 (0.97–3.81) 0.06 2.01 (0.68–5.90) 0.20
Place of residence
 Urban 271 59 (21.8) 1.00   1.00  
 Rural 435 135 (31.0) 1.61 (1.11–2.33) 0.01* 1.60 (0.87–2.94) 0.13
Monthly family income (Birr) a
 1–400 109 30 (27.5) 0.96 (0.57–1.63) 0.91 0.82 (0.27–2.45) 0.73
 401–800 84 28 (33.3) 1.22 (0.71–2.13) 0.46 0.76 (0.23–2.56) 0.66
  ≥ 801 264 67 (25.4) 0.82 (0.54–1.24) 0.36 0.61 (0.19–1.89) 0.39
 No regular income 249 69 (27.7) 1.00   1.00  
HIV sero-status       
 Negative 616 169 (27.4) 1.00   1.00  
 Positive 82 24 (29.3) 1.06 (0.63–1.79) 0.82 0.76 (0.34–1.71) 0.52
knowledge about TB
 Good 351 58 (16.5) 1.00   1.00  
 Poor 355 136 (38.3) 3.39 (2.33–4.95) < 0.001* 2.33 (1.34–4.05) 0.01*
Perceived to be stigmatized
 No 618 167 (27.0) 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 88 27 (30.7) 1.18 (0.71–1.98) 0.51 1.37 (0.66–2.84) 0.39
Time travelled to arrive at the nearest health facility
  ≤ 2 h 671 181 (27.0) 1.00   1.00  
  > 2 h 35 13 (37.1) 1.64 (0.78–3.43) 0.18 0.65 (0.23–1.79) 0.40
First health care seeking action
 Visited formal health provider 433 24 (5.5) 1.00   1.00  
 Visited non-formal health provider 223 152 (68.2) 39.73 (23.39–67.48) < 0.001* 47.56 (26.31–85.99) < 0.001*
 Self-treatment using various remedies at their homes 50 18 (36.0) 9.97 (4.79–20.76) < 0.001* 10.11 (4.53–22.56) < 0.001*
Types of PTB
 Smear -positive PTB 334 84 (25.1) 1.00   1.00  
 Smear -negative PTB 372 110 (29.6) 1.30 (0.93–1.84) 0.13 1.32 (0.81–2.16) 0.26
  1. Estimated for random effect =0.384 (0.197–0 .746)
  2. Delayed more than 30 days, a 1 USD = 22.00 Ethiopian Birr *statistically significant association, PTB pulmonary tuberculosis, N number, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval