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Table 1 Pediatric cases of MERS associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection

From: Mycoplasma pneumoniae-associated mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion: report of two pediatric cases and a comprehensive literature review

Age (yrs) Sex Duration of prodromal illness (d) Neurological symptoms Non-neurological symptoms Duration of fever (d) Diagnosic method for MP Diagnosis of MP-associated encephalitis MR Chest WBC CRP Na CSF EEG MRI Time till recovery of MRI findings (d) Time till clinical recovery (d) Treatment Outcome Ref
X-ray/CT (cells/μL) (mg/dl) (mEq/L) finding findings Antibiotics Steroids
13 M 1 Abnormal speech, ataxia, confusion, drowsiness Abd pain, fever, lethargy NA IgMAb/CFT probable NA NA 7,950 0.1 NA pleocytosis SW type II, SCC, center semiovale, genu, parietal 90 180 CIP CR [5]
3 F 3 Drowsiness, seizure Diarrhea, fever, vomiting 6 IgMAb/EIA possible NA NA normal NA normal NA type I 60 3 AZT CR [12]
8 M 2 Ataxia, confusion, drowsiness Fever, lethargy 6 IgMAb/EIA possible NA NA increased + NA normal NA type I 6 8 AZT + CR [12]
9 M 1 Drowsiness, left peripheral facial nerve paralysis Fever, headache, lethargy, vomiting 2 IgMAb/ELISA
MP (+) in PS by PCR
possible NA NA 4,500 1.6 127 normal
MP (−) in CSF by PCR
SW type I 7 10 AZT CR [13]
12 M 6 Drowsiness Cough, dizziness, fever, headache, lethargy, vomiting 6 IgMAb/ELISA
MP (+) in PS by PCR
possible NA IF 8,100 1.4 139 normal
MP (−) in CSF by PCR
IL-6↑
SW type I 3 8 AZT CR [13]
2 M 2 Abnormal speech, irritability, motor deterioration, seizure Abd.pain, fever, vomiting 2 ELISA possible NA NA 11,600 6.6 136 normal normal type I 120 8 NA CR [14]
6 M 4 Abnormal speech, delilium, drowsiness Abd.pain, fever, headache 4 ELISA possible NA NA 12,600 16.8 135 normal SW type I 67 19 NA + CR [14]
6 M 6 Drowsiness, irritability Cough, fever, headache 10 PA probable + IBM 11,800 0.33 135 pleocytosis SW type I 18 12 CIP CR [15]
8 F 1 Ataxia, muscle weakness, tremor Cough, fever NA PA probable NA IF 8,000 5.72 136 ND NA type I 8 8 NA NA CR [16]
10 F 1 Drowsiness Cough 0 PA probable NA IF NA NA NA ND NA type I 15 4 NA NA CR [17]
12 F 7 Abnormal behavior, drowsiness, seizure Fever NA NA possible NA NA NA NA NA NA NA type I NA 10 NA + CR [18]
6 F 4 Delirium Cough, fever 8 NA possible + IF NA NA NA ND NA type I 11 8 CIP NA CR [19]
7 M 8 Abnormal speech, drowsines Cough, fever, headache 6 PA probable NA NA 16,400 1.1 131 pleocytosis
MP (−) in CSF by PCR
normal type I 4 4 MINO + CR [20]
14 M 5 Abnormal speech/behavior, delirium, drowsiness, hallucinations Cough, fever, headache 5 IgMAb/EIA possible + IF 7,680 2.6 134 ND ND type I 7 7 MINO + CR Case1
8 F 1 Ataxia, drowsiness, intension tremor, seizure Cough, diarrhea, fever, headache, lethargy, vomiting 9 IgMAb/EIA possible NA IBM 6,480 <0.3 133 ND normal type II,SCC, left cerebellum 7 60 MINO CR Case2
  1. Ab antibody, Abd abdominal, AZT azithromycin, CFT complement fixation test, CIP ciprofloxacin, CR complete recovery, CRP C-reactive protein. CSF cerebrospinal fluid, CT computed tomography, EEG electroencephalography, EIA enzyme immunoassay, ELISA enzyme-linked immusorbent assay, IBM increased bronchial markings, IF infiltration, IL interleukin, MINO minocycline, MERS mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion, MP Mycoplasma pneumoniae, MR macrolide (clarithromycin) resistance, MRI magnetic resonance imaging, PA particle agglutination assay, PCR polymerase chain reaction, PS pharyngeal swab sample, SCC splenium of the corpus callosum, SW slow wave, WBC white blood cell. ↑ increase, ND not done, NA not available