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Table 2 Incidence rate per 1000 person years, unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios of association between patient and clinical factors with virological failure

From: Virological failure reduced with HIV-serostatus disclosure, extra baseline weight and rising CD4 cells among HIV-positive adults in Northwestern Uganda

Variable Total No. = 383 Plasma Viral load (>5, 000 copies/uL) No. = 28 Incidence rate per 1000 person-years uHR (95 % CI) P-value aHR (95 % CI) Adjusted for all variables with P < 5 % at unadjusted level & WHO clinical stage P-value
Age in years
 Below 30 169 (44.1) 12 57.2 (32.5-100.7) 1    
 Above 30 214 (55.9) 16 58.7 (35.9-95.7) 0.98 (0.46-2.08) 0.947   
Residence
 Rural 294 (76.8) 25 67.3 (45.5-99.7) 1    
 Urban 89 (23.2) 3 26.9 (8.7-83.5) 0.40 (0.12-1.33) 0.134   
Marital status
 Single 54 (14.1) 6 103.2 (46.4-229.8) 1    
 Married 234 (61.1) 15 50.6 (30.5-83.8) 0.36 (0.14-0.95) 0.05   
 Separated 71 (18.5) 6 62.8 (28.2-139.8) 0.43 (0.13-1.35) 0.148   
 One partner is dead 24 (6.3) 1 31.0 (4.4-219.8) 0.20 (0.02-1.67) 0.136   
Occupation
 Formal employment 79 (20.6) 7 72.1 (34.4-151.3) 1    
 Self-employment 167 (43.6) 11 52.0 (28.8-93.9) 0.64 (0.25-1.67) 0.362   
 Not employed 137 (35.8) 10 57.4 (30.9-106.8) 0.73 (0.28-1.91) 0.519   
Educational level
 None 41 (10.7) 4 76.1 (28.6-202.8) 1    
 Primary 95 (24.8) 4 32.3 (12.1-86.0) 0.40 (0.10-1.61) 0.199   
 Secondary 154 (40.2) 12 63.1 (35.9-111.2) 0.86 (0.28-2.67) 0.795   
 Tertiary 93 (24.3) 8 68.9 (34.5-137.8) 0.96 (0.29-3.19) 0.946   
Religion
 Catholic 203 (53.0) 14 53.9 (31.9-91.0) 1    
 Moslem 46 (12.0) 2 38.4 (9.6-153.4) 0.78 (0.18-3.46) 0.749   
 Anglican 134 (35.0) 12 70.3 (39.9-123.7) 1.28 (0.59-2.77) 0.529   
Tribe
 Lugbara 290 (75.7) 17 47.3 (29.4-76.1) 1 1   
 Ma’ di 14 (3.7) 1 57.7 (8.1-409.8) 1.20 (0.16-9.04) 0.860   
 Luo 79 (20.6) 10 94.2 (50.7-175.2) 1.82 (0.83-3.94) 0.134   
Sex
 Male 145 (37.9) 14 (9.7) 82.0 (48.2-138.4) 1   1  
 Female 238 (62.1) 14 (5.9) 44.9 (26.6-75.8) 0.45 (0.21-0.95) 0.035 0.45 (0.19-1.03) 0.059
Baseline WHO staging     1   1  
 I/II 359 (93.7) 21 (5.8) 59.6 (40.9-86.9) 0.60 (0.08-4.40) 0.612 0.60 (0.08-4.80) 0.632
 III/IV 24 (6.3) 7 (29.2) 33.9 (4.8-240.4)     
Baseline weight/Kgs
 Less or equals 56 Kgs 194 (50.7) 20 (10.3) 82.0 (52.9-127.1) 1   1  
 More than 56 Kgs 189 (49.4) 8 (4.2) 33.5 (16.8-67.0) 0.39 (0.17-0.89) 0.025 1.14 (0.31-4.14) 0.845
 1-kg increase     0.92 (0.86-0.98) 0.008 0.86 (0.76-0.96) 0.008
Baseline CD4 cells/uL
 Less or equals 250 cells/uL 192 (50.1) 21 (10.9) 92.3 (60.2-141.6) 1   1  
 More than 250 cells/uL 191 (49.9) 7 (3.7) 27.4 (13.1-57.6) 0.26 (0.11-0.61) 0.002 0.32 (0.08-1.20) 0.091
 1-CD4 cell increase     0.99 (0.99-0.10) 0.005 1.01 (1.00-1.01) 0.133
Recent CD4 cells/uL
 Less or equals 362 cells/uL 194 (50.7) 21 (10.8) 84.9 (55.3-130.1) 1   1  
 More than 362 cells/uL 189 (49.3) 7 (3.7) 29.8 (14.2-62.4) 0.36 (0.15-0.85) 0.021 5.02 (1.11-22.72) 0.056
 1-CD4 cell increase/uL     0.99 (0.99-1.00) <0.001 0.99 (0.98-0.99) <0.001
HIV sero-status disclosure
 No 68 (17.8) 14 (20.6) 177.9 (105.4-300.4) 1   1  
 Yes 315 (82.3) 14 (44.4) 34.7 (20.5-58.5) 0.18 (0.08-0.37) <0.001 0.15 (0.06-0.33) <0.001
  1. Note
  2. -Percentages calculated as row percentages (n/N)
  3. -Level of significance was 5 %
  4. -Bolded P-values are significant at 5 %
  5. -uHR Unadjusted Hazard Ratio, aHR Adjusted Hazard Ratio, CI Confidence interval, WHO World Health Organization, CD4 Cluster of Cell Differentiation-4