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Table 4 Multivariate analysis of risk factors associated with A(H5N1) virus infection in various age groups, data from seroprevalence surveys in 2006, 2007 and 2009, Cambodia

From: Environmental contamination and risk factors for transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) to humans, Cambodia, 2006-2010

Characteristic OR 95 % CI p value Prevalence among cases (%) PAF (%)
All ages (35 cases and 115 control subjects)
 Poultry cage or place located under or attached to the house 6.7 1.6-28.3 0.010 77.8 66.2
 Presence of a pond in the house yard 0.2 0.06-0.8 0.027 28.6 -
 Presence of sick animals or animal that died from disease in the house yard 0.2 0.04-0.6 0.008 44.0 -
 Transporting poultry to trade 17.6 1.6-193.7 0.019 12.0 11.0
Providing care for the case during the illness or for the case's corpse 0.17 0.03-0.97 0.046 80.0 -
Age under 20 years old (22 cases and 77 control subjects)
 Swimming or bathing in ponds also accessed by poultry 4.6 1.1-19.1 0.038 54.6 42.7
 Feeding poultry 0.2 0.03-0.8 0.030 54.6 -
 Eating food prepared from sick poultry or poultry that died from disease 0.2 0.02-1.0 0.051 33.3 -
 Eating wild birds 4.9 0.9-26.8 0.066 50.0 39.8
Age ≥20 years old (13 cases and 38 control subjects)
 Gathering and placing poultry in their cages or nests 4.3 0.9-21.5 0.072 69.2 53.1
 Eating food prepared from sick poultry or poultry that died from disease 0.1 0.02-1.0 0.055 38.5 -
  1. OR odd ratio, multivariate analysis using conditional logistic regression model, CI confidence interval, PAF Population Attributable Fraction