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Table 3 Bivariate analysis of factors associated with A(H5N1) virus infection in humans, data from matched case-control studies in 2006, 2007, 2009, Cambodia

From: Environmental contamination and risk factors for transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) to humans, Cambodia, 2006-2010

Characteristic Control Case OR 95 % CI p value (*)
n/N (%) n/N (%)
All ages (n = 115) (n = 35)    
Poultry cage or nest located under or adjacent to the house 36/68 (52.9) 14/18 (77.8) 3.2 0.9−11.0 0.060
Having a pond in the house yard 49/115 (42.6) 10/35 (28.6) 0.4 0.1−1.2 0.109
Swimming or bathing in ponds accessed by poultry 35/115 (30.4) 14/35 (40.0) 2.1 0.9−4.8 0.099
Swimming or bathing in ponds visited by domestic and wild poultry 19/65 (29.2) 8/17 (47.1) 2.2 0.7−6.8 0.157
Feeding poultry 84/115 (73.0) 20/35 (57.1) 0.4 0.2−1.0 0.055
Collecting poultry feces for use as fertilizer 22/91 (24.2) 3/28 (10.7) 0.4 0.1−1.4 0.141
Presence of SD animals in the house or house yard 59/92 (64.1) 11/25 (44.0) 0.4 0.2−1.1 0.083
Presence of SD poultry in neighboring households 61/90 (67.8) 12/28 (42.9) 0.4 0.1−0.9 0.023
Handling SD with bare hands 64/115 (55.7) 15/35 (42.9) 0.6 0.3−1.3 0.181
Preparing SD poultry for food 34/115 (29.6) 7/35 (20.0) 0.5 0.1−1.4 0.178
Eating food prepared from SD poultry 57/91 (62.6) 10/28 (35.7) 0.3 0.1−0.8 0.015
Handling SD wild birds 8/92 (8.7) 5/25 (20.0) 2.4 0.8−7.8 0.131
Transporting poultry to trade 2/92 (2.2) 3/25 (12.0) 6.0 1.0−35.9 0.050
Presence of a household member with flu-like illness during the outbreak 60/115 (52.2) 15/35 (42.9) 0.5 0.2−1.2 0.108
Providing care for the case during his/her illness or for the case's corpse 21/92 (22.8) 2/25 (8.0) 0.3 0.1−1.4 0.120
Age <20 years old (n = 77) (n = 22)    
Poultry cage or nest located under or adjacent to the house 23/43 (53.5) 9/11 (81.8) 4.1 0.8−21.7 0.095
Having a pond in the house yard 37/77 (48.1) 7/22 (31.8) 0.1 0.02−1.2 0.076
Swimming or bathing in ponds also accessed by poultry 28/77 (36.4) 12/22 (54.6) 2.6 0.9−7.3 0.065
Swimming or bathing in ponds also accessed by wild birds 16/42 (38.1) 7/11 (63.6) 2.9 0.8−11.4 0.119
Feeding poultry 59/77 (76.6) 12/22 (54.6) 0.2 0.05−0.8 0.027
Presence of SD poultry in neighboring households 33/53 (62.3) 6/15 (40.0) 0.4 0.1−1.4 0.145
Handling SD with bare hands 44/77 (57.1) 9/22 (40.9) 0.5 0.2−1.4 0.161
Eating food prepared from SD poultry 31/53 (58.5) 5/15 (33.3) 0.3 0.08−1.2 0.096
Handling SD wild birds 6/67 (9.0) 5/18 (27.8) 3.3 0.9−11.7 0.059
Eating food prepared from wild birds 18/67 (26.9) 9/18 (50.0) 3.5 0.98−12.7 0.054
Age ≥20 years old (n = 38) (n = 13)    
Gathering and placing poultry in their cages or area 15/38 (39.5) 9/13 (69.2) 3.0 0.8−11.6 0.104
Presence of SD animals in the house of house yard 16/38 (64.0) 2/13 (28.6) 0.2 0.02−1.8 0.142
Presence of SD poultry in neighboring households 28/37 (75.7) 6/13 (46.2) 0.3 0.07−1.2 0.079
Eating food prepared from SD poultry 26/38 (68.4) 5/13 (38.5) 0.2 0.05−1.2 0.075
  1. OR odd ratio, bivariate analysis using conditional logistic regression model, CI confidence interval, SD sick or died from disease, Case: subject tested positive for anti-H5 antibodies; (*) only exposure variables included in multivariate analysis (significant level p < 0.2) are shown