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Table 2 Respiratory microbes detected from children presenting with suspected pulmonary tuberculosisa

From: Respiratory microbes present in the nasopharynx of children hospitalised with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa

  Total n (%) cTB status n (%) Unadjasted p-value #Adjusted p-value
  Definite-TB Unconfirmed-TB Unlikely-TB   
Number of participants 214 (100) 34 (16) 86 (40) 94 (44)   
Bacteria
M. catarrhalis 137 (64) 24 (71) 56 (65) 57 (60) 0.64 1.00
S. pneumoniae 90 (42) 18 (53) 38 (44) 34 (36) 0.22 1.00
H. influenzae spp 62 (29) 8 (24) 25 (29) 29 (31) 0.44 1.00
S. aureus 47 (22) 7 (21) 18 (21) 22 (23) 0.79 1.00
H. influenzae B 31 (15) 5 (15) 15 (17) 11 (12) 0.97 1.00
M. pneumoniae 19 (9) 2 (6) 9 (10) 8 (9) 0.84 1.00
B. pertussis 12 (6) 3 (9) 6 (7) 3 (3) 0.43 1.00
C. pneumoniae 9 (4) 4 (12) 4 (5) 1 (1) 0.03 0.42
Viruses
 Metapneumovirus A/B 41 (19) 7 (21) 21 (24) 13 (14) 0.60 1.00
 Rhinovirus 31 (15) 6 (18) 13 (15) 12 (13) 0.77 1.00
 Enterovirus 22 (10) 1 (3) 10 (12) 11 (12) 0.21 1.00
 Adenovirus 14 (7) 3 (9) 5 (6) 6 (6) 0.99 1.00
 Cytomegalovirus 14 (7) 3 (9) 3 (3) 8 (9) 1.00 1.00
 Bocavirus 14 (7) 8 (24) 1 (1) 5 (5) 1.00 1.00
 Coronavirus 17 (8) 5 (15) 8 (9) 4 (4) 0.13 0.94
  Coronavirus O43 12 (6) 5 (15) 5 (6) 2 (2) 0.02 0.42
  Coronavirus HKU 2 (1) 0 (0) 1 (1) 1 (1) 1.00 1.00
  Coronavirus NL63 2 (1) 0 (0) 1 (1) 1 (1) 1.00 1.00
  Coronavirus 229E 1 (0.5) 0 (0) 1 (1) 0 (0) nad nad
 RSV A/Bb 7 (3) 1 (3) 3 (3) 3 (3) 1.00 1.00
 Influenza virus 33 (15) 8 (24) 15 (17) 10 (11) 0.17 0.94
  Influenza A 7 (3) 1 (3) 4 (5) 2 (2) 1.00 1.00
  Influenza B 7 (3) 1 (3) 2 (2) 4 (4) 1.00 1.00
  Influenza C 19 (9) 6 (18) 9 (10) 4 (4) 0.04 0.43
 Parainfluenza virus 10 (5) 1 (3) 4 (5) 5 (5) 0.88 1.00
  Parainfluenza 1 5 (2) 1 (3) 2 (2) 2 (2) 1.00 1.00
  Parainfluenza 2 1 (0.5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1) 1.00 1.00
  Parainfluenza 3 2 (1) 0 (0) 1 (1) 1 (1) 1.00 1.00
  Parainfluenza 4 2 (1) 0 (0) 1 (1) 1 (1) 1.00 1.00
 Both Bacteria & Viruses 124 (58) 24 (73) 48 (56) 52 (55) - 0.11
Fungi
P. jirovecii 23 (11) 3 (9) 10 (12) 10 (11) 0.94 1.00
  1. aArranged in order of decreasing colonisation or detection rates
  2. bRSV A/B = Respiratory Syncyntial virus A and B
  3. #The adjusted p-value compensates for multiple comparisons. The p-values only compare the presence of each microbe between the definite-TB and unlikely-TB groups. The true proportion of TB in the unconfirmed-TB is unknown hence not included in comparison
  4. cTB = Microbiological confirmation of pulmonary Tuberculosis
  5. nad = Non of the children had Coronavirus 229 present, except in the unconfirmed-TB category which is excluded