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Table 3 Susceptibility (of bacteria from blood cultures taken from neonates between 2 to 28 days) to antimicrobials used for empiric treatment of neonatal septicaemia

From: Neonatal bloodstream infections in a Ghanaian Tertiary Hospital: Are the current antibiotic recommendations adequate?

Organisms Number of isolates Susceptibility
Ampicillin + Gentamicin (A) Ampicillin + Cefotaxime (B) Cloxacillin + Gentamicin (C) Regimen coverage
  Number Tested (%) Number susceptible (%) Number Tested (%) Number susceptible (%) Number Tested (%) Number susceptible (%)
Gram negatives 220 200 (90.9) 72 (36.0)a 188 (85.4) 92 (48.9)a 173 (0.78) 102 (46.3)b C > B = A; p = 0.001
   Enterobacteriacea 160 145 (90.6) 44 (30.3) 149 (93.1) 75 (50.3) 131 (81.8) 78 (59.5)  
   Acinetobacter species 43 40 (93.0) 22 (55.0) 39 (90.7) 17 (43.6) 31 (72.1) 17 (54.8)  
   Pseudomonas species 16 15 (93.7) 6 (40.0) - - 11 (68.7) 7 (63.6)  
  Others 1        
Gram positives 811 762 (93.9) 276 (36.3)b 770 (94.9) 144 (18.7)a 723 (89.1) 468 (64.7)c C > B < A; p = 0.001
   Enterococcus species 36 29 (80.5) 8 (27.5) 34 (94.4) 9 (26.4) - -  
   Staphylococcus aureus 159 143 (89.9) 64 (44.7) 151 (94.9) 22 (14.6) 142 (89.3) 82 (57.7)  
  CoNS 549 539 (98.2) 183 (34.0)b 540 (98.3) 97 (17.9)a 531 (96.7) 366 (68.9)c C > B < A; p = 0.001
   Streptococcus species 58 51 (97.9) 21 (41.0) 45 (77.5) 16 (35.5) 50 (86.2) 20 (40.0)  
  Others 9        
Total 1031 962 (93.3) a348 (36.2)b 958 (92.9) a236 (24.6)a 896 (86.9) a570 (63.6)c C > B < A; p = 0.001
Total excluding CoNS 482 423 (87.8) a165 (39.0)b 418 (86.7) b139 (33.2)a 365 (75.7) b204 (55.8)c C > B < A; p = 0.001
Polymicrobial infections 25 16 (64.0) 3 (18.7) 14 (56.0) 3 (21.4) 16 (64.0) 6 (37.7) C = B = A; p = 0.431
  2 organisms 22 14 (63.6) 2 (14.2) 12 (54.5) 2 (16.7) 15 (68.2) 5 (33.3)  
  3 organisms 3 2 (66.7) 1 (50.0) 2 (66.7) 1 (50.0) 1 (33.3) 1 (100.0)  
  1. Based on in-vitro susceptibility. Data on isolates with insufficient numbers (n ≤ 5) not shown. For polymicrobial infections, all isolates were susceptible to at least one of the treatment antibiotics
  2. A, Ampicillin plus Gentamicin; B, Ampicillin plus cefotaxime; C, Cloxacillin plus gentamicin; CoNS, Coagulase negative Staphylococcus species. Other Gram-negatives included Neisseria species (n = 1), Stenophromonas species (n = 1) and Moraxella species (n = 1). Other Gram-positives included Micrococcus species (n = 5), and Sterptomyces species (n = 4)
  3. Differing superscripts across row denotes differences in the proportion of susceptible isolates to antimicrobial regimen. Differences in proportions computed by Chi square with Marascuilo’s Post Hoc Multiple proportion comparisons at p-value <0.05. Differing subscripts within a column denotes differences in the proportion of susceptible isolates to antimicrobial regimen