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Table 1 Bacteria and fungi isolates from blood cultures of neonates <48 h and 2–28 days old

From: Neonatal bloodstream infections in a Ghanaian Tertiary Hospital: Are the current antibiotic recommendations adequate?

Organism Total EOS X 2 trend p-value LOS X 2 trend p-value
Number of isolates (%) Number of isolates (%)
EOS LOS 2010 2011 2012 2013 2010 2011 2012 2013
Gram negatives 109 (14.9) a 220 (21.7) b 33 (14.0) 16 (11.1) 45 (17.2) 15 (17.8) 0.219 63 (22.9) 41 (15.7) 80 (22.7) 36 (20.5) 0.541
Enterobacteriacea 79 (10.9) 160 (15.3) 28 (11.9) 8 (5.5) 35 (13.4) 8 (9.5) 0.879 45 (16.4) 28 (10.7) 61 (17.3) 26 (17.9) 0.444
   Escherichia coli 11 (1.5) 14 (1.3) 2 (0.9) 1 (0.7) 6 (2.2) 2 (2.4) 0.183 5 (1.8) 5 (1.9) 10 (2.8) 4 (2.6) 0.450
   Klebsiella species 10 (1.4) 21 (2.0) 3 (1.2) 1 (0.7) 5 (1.9) 1 (1.2) 0.801 5 (1.8) 1 (0.4) 11 (3.1) 4 (2.6) 0.210
   Kluyvera species 7 (0.9) 6 (0.6) 5 (2.1) 0 1 (0.4) 1 (1.2) 0.109 1 (0.3) 1 (0.4) 1 (0.2) 3 (2.0) 0.187
   Citrobacter species 23 (3.2) 44 (4.3) 7 (2.9) 3 (2.1) 11 (4.2) 2 (2.4) 0.785 16 (5.8) 10 (3.8) 12 (3.4) 6 (4.0) 0.199
   Enterobacter species 19 (2.6) 40 (3.9) 6 (2.5) 2 (1.4) 10 (3.8) 1 (1.2) 0.927 14 (5.1) 4 (1.5) 19 (5.4) 3 (2.0) 0.520
   Proteus species 5 (0.7) 7 (0.6) 3 (1.2) 1 (0.7) 1 (0.4) 0 0.097 0 2 (0.6) 3 (0.9) 2 (1.3) 0.144
   Salmonella species 3 (0.4) 10 (0.9) 1 (0.4) 0 1 (0.4) 1 (1.2) 0.698 3 (1.1) 3 (1.1) 3 (0.9) 1 (0.7) 0.506
   Serratia species 1 (0.4) 8 (0.7) 1 (0.4) 0 0 0 0.089 1 (0.3) 2 (0.8) 2 (0.6) 3 (2.0) 0.216
Acinetobacter species 16 (2.2) 43 (4.1) 3 (1.2) 4 (2.7) 4 (1.5) 5 (5.9) 0.131 15 (5.4) 7 (2.6) 13 (3.7) 8 (5.3) 0.740
Pseudomonas species 11 (1.5) 16 (1.5) 2 (0.8) 2 (1.3) 5 (1.9) 2 (2.4) 0.300 3 (1.1) 6 (2.3) 5 (1.4) 2 (1.3) 0.934
 Others 3 (0.4) 1 (0.09) 0 2 (1.3) 1 (0.4) 0 0.865 0 0 1 0 0.895
Gram positives 610 (84.2) b 811 (78.0) a 200 (85.1) 127 (88.2) 214 (81.9) 69 (82.1) 0.241 212 (77.1) 219 (83.9) 270 (76.7) 114 (75.5) 0.386
Enterococcus species 43 (5.9) 36 (3.4) 32 (13.7) 3 (2.1) 6 (2.3) 2 (2.4) <0.001 23 (8.4) 5 (1.9) 6 (1.7) 2 (1.3) <0.001
Micrococcus species 1 (0.4) 5 (0.4) 1 (0.4) 0 0 0 0.089 0 1 (0.4) 2 (0.6) 2 (1.3) 0.108
Staphylococcus aureus 76 (10.5) 159 (15.3) 24 (10.2) 20 (13.9) 24 (9.2) 8 (9.5) 0.570 43 (15.6) 51 (19.5) 46 (13) 19 (12.6) 0.142
 CoNS 431 (59.5) 549 (52.8) 130 (55.3) 94 (65.2) 152 (58.2) 55 (65.4) <0.001 133 (48.4) 150 (57.5) 195 (55.3) 71 (47.0) 0.844
Streptococcus species 59 (8.1) 58 (5.6) 13 (55.3) 10 32 (12.3) 4 (4.8) 0.162 13 (4.7) 12 (4.6) 21 (6.0) 4 (2.6) 0.698
   Streptococcus pneumoniae 3 (0.4) 9 (0.9) 2 (0.8) 0 1 (0.4) 0 0.199 2 (0.6) 1 (0.4) 3 (0.9) 3 (2.0) 0.988
   Streptococcus pyogenes 3 (0.4) 9 (0.9) 2 (0.8) 0 1 (0.4) 0 0.199 2 (0.6) 1 (0.4) 3 (0.9) 3 (2.0) 0.295
   Streptococcus agalactiae 5 (0.7) 7 (0.6) 2 (0.8) 1 (0.7) 1 (0.4) 1 (1.2) 0.715 1 (0.3) 2 (0.8) 3 (0.9) 1 (1.3) 0.726
  Viridans Streptococci 22 (3.0) 16 (1.5) 2 (0.8) 5 (3.5) 13 (4.9) 2 (2.4) 0.073 2 (0.6) 3 (1.1) 7 (1.9) 4 (2.6) 0.102
  Other Streptococci 26 (3.6) 17 (1.6) 5 (2.1) 4 (2.8) 16 (6.1) 1 (1.2) 0.288 6 (2.0) 4 (1.5) 5 (1.4) 2 (1.3) 0.378
   Streptomyces species 0 4 (0.3) 0 0 0 0 - 0 1 (0.4) 0 3 (2.0) 0.049
Fungi 5 (0.7) a 8 (0.7) a 5 (2.1) 1 (0.7) 2 (0.8) 0 0.053 0 1 (0.4) 2 (0.6) 6 (3.9) <0.001
Aspergillus species 2 (0.2) 0 1 (0.4) 0 1 (0.4) 0 0.480 0 0 0 0 -
Candida albicans 3 (0.4) 8 (0.7) 1 (0.4) 1 (0.06) 1 (0.4) 0 0.467 0 1 (0.4) 2 (0.6) 5 (3.3) <0.001
Total 724 (41.1) 1039 (58.9) 235 144 261 84   275 261 352 151  
  1. *Differing superscripts across columns indicate significant difference at p-value <0.05; EOS, early onset infections; LOS, late onset infections; CoNS, coagulase negative staphylococci. Other Gram negatives included Neisseria species, Stenophromonas species and Moraxella species; Other Streptococci included S. mitis, S. salivarius, S. oralis, S sanguinis group, S bovis, S milleri, S. anginosus, S. constellatus and S. intermedius