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Table 1 Demographics, comorbidity/risk factors and disease manifestations

From: Temporal trends of β-haemolytic streptococcal osteoarticular infections in western Norway

  GAS n = 24 GBS n = 45 GCGS n = 40 a GAS vs GBS GAS vs GCGS GBS vs GCGS
Demographics     Adjusted p-values *
 Male sex 15 63 % 21 47 % 25 63 % 0.62 1.0 0.95
 Age Median (IQR) 48 (8–72) 70 (58–80) 69 (49–81) 0.007 0.049 1.0
Disease manifestation        
 AOM 5 21 % 11 24 % 4 10 % 1.0 1.0 0.6
  Vertebral AOM 0   7   3     
  Peripheral AOM 5   4   1     
 PJI 5 21 % 22 49 % 15 38 % 0.148 1.0 1.0
  Early PJI 2   6   2     
  Delayed PJI 3   6   5     
 Late PJI 0   10   8     
  NJI 14 58 % 12 27 % 21 53 % 0.049 1.0 0.11
Affected joint          
 Hip 4 21 % 15 44 % 9 25 %    
 Knee 8 42 % 8 24 % 15 42 %    
 Ankle 2 11 % 1 3 % 3 8 %    
 Shoulder 0 0 % 1 3 % 4 11 %    
 Other 7 37 % 6 18 % 11 31 %    
 Multiple joints 0 0 % 5 15 % 1 3 %    
Microbiological cultures        
 Blood 14 58 % 25 56 % 13 33 %    
 Synovial Fluid 14 58 % 11 24 % 23 58 %    
 Tissue 1 4 % 12 27 % 8 20 %    
 Polymicrobial b 3 13 % 2 4 % 4 10 %    
Comorbidity and risk factors        
 Systemic risk factor 10 42 % 37 82 % 23 58 % 0.005 1.0 0.1
  Diabetes 3 13 % 10 22 % 5 13 %    
  Chr. Org. failure 6 25 % 29 64 % 15 38 %    
  Active malignancy 1 4 % 8 18 % 5 13 %    
  Immunosuppress 1 4 % 2 4 % 4 10 %    
  IVDU 2 8 % 0 0 % 5 13 %    
Local risk factor 10 42 % 29 64 % 29 73 % 0.21 0.084 1.0
 Rheum. joint dis. 0 0 % 4 9 % 6 15 %    
 Prior SA 5 21 % 5 11 % 10 25 %    
 Prosthesis 5 21 % 22 49 % 15 38 %    
 Surg proc < 4 weeks 4 17 % 9 20 % 10 25 %    
 Any risk factor 15 63 % 41 91 % 37 93 % 0.046 0.048 1.0
  1. All data are presented as n (%), except Age presented as median (inner quartile range (IQR)). Significant values are highlighted in bold
  2. Abbreviations: GAS group A streptococci, GBS group B streptococci, GCGS group C and G streptococci, AOM acute osteomyelitis, PJI prosthetic joint infection, NJI native joint infection, Chr. Org.failure chronic organ failure (according to medical records), IVDU active intravenous drug use, Rheum. Joint dis rheumatic joint disease, SA septic arthritis, Surg proc < 4 weeks surgical joint procedure performed within 4 weeks prior to admission
  3. * The p-values are adjusted for multiple comparisons ad modum Holm-Bonferroni
  4. a Two GCGS cases did not provide informed consent, and were excluded from the analyses
  5. b Three GAS, one GBS and one GCGS blood culture positive cases had concomitant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. One GBS and three GCGS tissue cultures also grew coagulase negative staphylococci