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Table 1 General characteristics, record bias and reporting bias of included studies

From: Does cemented or cementless single-stage exchange arthroplasty of chronic periprosthetic hip infections provide similar infection rates to a two-stage? A systematic review

Study First Author Ref. Year Patients (n) Stage Investigated Follow Up (months) Design Record Bias Reporting Bias (Outcome Measure)
Min Max Mean
Babiak [28] 2012 9 Two 36 180 84 NA Yes NA
Babis [29] 2015 31 Two 20 48 30 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Imaging, Laboratory
Berend [30] 2013 186 Two 24 180 53 Retrospective NR Culture
Biring [31] 2009 48 Two 120 180 144 Retrospective Yes Culture
Bori [32] 2014 24 Single 25 94 45 Retrospective Yes Culture
Buchholz [33] 1981 583 Single 24 132 Prospective Yes Culture
Buttaro [34] 2005 29 Two 24 60 32.4 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Imaging, Laboratory
Cabrita [8] 2007 38 Two 24 102 48 Prospective Yes Culture
Callaghan [35] 1999 12 Single 12 168 109.2 Retrospective Yes Imaging
Camurcu [36] 2015 41 Two 24 96 54 Retrospective Yes Culture
Carlsson [37] 1985 72 Both 12 72 Prospective Yes Symptoms, Imaging, Culture
Chen [38] 2015 155 Two 36 180 116.4 Retrospective NR Culture
Choi [12] 2013 61 Both 12 132 61 Retrospective Yes Culture
Colyer [10] 1994 37 Two 12 88 36 Unclear Yes Culture
Cordero-Ampuero [39] 2009 36 Two 12 144 52.8 Prospective Yes Culture
D'Angelo [40] 2011 28 Two 18 106 53 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Imaging, Laboratory
Darley [41] 2009 19 Two 24 36 26 Prospective Yes Symptoms, Culture
De Man [42] 2011 72 Both 17 204 60 Retrospective Yes Culture
Degen [43] 2012 30 Two 24 70 43 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Culture
Ekpo [44] 2014 19 Two 24 132 48 Retrospective Yes Laboratory, Culture
Evans [45] 2004 23 Two 24 108 48 Prospective NR Symptoms, Culture
Fehring [46] 1999 25 Two 24 98 41 Prospective Yes Symptoms, Laboratory
Fink [47] 2009 36 Two 24 60 35 Prospective Yes Culture
Fitzgerald [48] 1985 131 Two 24 108 49 Retrospective Yes Symptoms
Gao [49] 2008 15 Both 12 37 19 NA NA Culture
Garvin [50] 1994 40 Both 24 120 60 NA NA Culture
Haddad [51] 2000 50 Two 24 104 69.6 Retrospective Yes Symptoms
Hofmann [52] 2005 27 Two 28 148 76 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Imaging, Laboratory
Hope [53] 1989 80 Both 2 121 Retrospective Yes Culture
Hsieh [55] 2004 128 Two 24 96 58.8 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Laboratory
Hsieh [11] 2009 99 Two 24 60 43 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Culture
Hsieh [54] 2013 28 Two 48 120 86 Retrospective Yes Symptoms,Culture, Laboratory
Hughes [24] 1979 26 Both 32 83 51 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Imaging, Laboratory, Culture
Ibrahim [56] 2014 125 Two 60 75 103.2 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Laboratory, Culture
Ilchmann [57] 2015 38 Single 24 181.2 79.2 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Culture
Jenny [58] 2014 63 Single 36 72 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Culture
Johnson [59] 2013 66 Two 24 105 45 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Laboratory, Culture
Karpas [60] 2003 18 Two 24 120 42 Retrospective Yes NR
Kent [61] 2010 12 Two 26 60 38 Retrospective NR NR
Ketterl [13] 1988 161 Two 24 168 32 NA NA NA
Kim [63] 2011 130 Two 60 168 124.8 Retrospective Yes Laboratory, Culture
Klouche [22] 2012 84 Both 24 68 35 Prospective Yes Culture
Koo [62] 2001 22 Two 24 78 41 Prospective Yes Symptoms, Imaging, Laboratory
Lai [64] 1996 39 Two 30 84 48 Prospective Yes Symptoms, Laboratory
Lee [65] 2013 17 Two 24 96 48 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Laboratory, Culture
Leung [66] 2011 38 Two 24 123 58 Retrospective Yes Symptoms,Laboratory
Li [67] 2015 10 Both 78 187.2 103.2 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Laboratory, Culture
Lieberman [68] 1994 32 Two 24 74 40 Retrospective NR NR
Macheras [69] 2012 35 Two 84 168 139.2 Retrospective Yes NR
Magnan [70] 2001 8 Two 24 48 35 Retrospective NR NR
Masri [71] 2007 29 Two 24 88 47 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Laboratory
McDonald [72] 1989 81 Two 24 163.2 66 Prospective Yes Culture
McKenna [73] 2009 30 Two 24 60 35 Retrospective Yes Laboratory
Miley [74] 1982 46 Single 32 48.5 Prospective NR Unclear
Morales [75] 1999 37 Two 36 156 57.6 NA NA NA
Morscher [76] 1994 74 Both 12 132 84 NA Yes Symptoms, Imaging, Laboratory
Mulcahy [77] 1996 15 Single 24 84 53 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Imaging, Laboratory, Culture
Nestor [78] 1994 34 Two 24 72 47 Retrospective Yes Culture
Neumann [79] 2011 44 Two 36 120 67 Retrospective Yes Laboratory
Nusem [80] 2006 18 Two 60 168 108 Retrospective Yes Unclear
Oussedik [9] 2010 50 Both 66 105.7 81.6 Prospective Yes Imaging, Laboratory
Pignatti [81] 2010 41 Two 60 120 63.6 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Imaging, Laboratory
Raut [82] 1995 57 Single 24 151 88 Prospective Yes Symptoms, Laboratory
Romanò [83] 2012 183 Two 24 104 56 Retrospective Yes Laboratory, Culture
Rudelli [84] 2008 32 Single 24 96 52.8 Unclear Yes Imaging, Laboratory, Culture
Sabry [85] 2013 78 Two 24.3 135.3 58 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Laboratory
Sanchez [86] 2009 168 Two 24 192 84 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Culture
Sanzen [87] 1988 102 Both 24 108 Prospective Yes Culture
Schneider [88] 1989 26 Single 12 108 NA Yes NA
Schwarzkopf [89] 2014 56 Two 12 32.4 Retrospective Yes Laboratory, Culture
Seung-Jae [90] 2009 34 Two 24 120 52.8 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Culture
Stockley [91] 2008 114 Two 24 175 74 Prospective Yes Symptoms, Laboratory, Culture
Sudo [25] 2008 7 Two 27.6 73.2 60 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Imaging, Laboratory
Takigami [92] 2010 8 Two 24 81 49 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Laboratory
Thabe [93] 2007 16 Two 72 120 75.6 Prospective Yes NR
Toulson [94] 2009 82 Two 24 203 64.8 Retrospective Yes Unclear
Ure [95] 1998 20 Single 42 205.2 118.8 Prospective Yes Symptoms, Imaging, Laboratory, Culture
van Diemen [96] 2013 136 Two 24 180 72 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Imaging, Laboratory, Culture
Wang [97] 2011 12 Two 36 96 64.8 NA Yes NR
Weber [98] 1986 33 Both 60 96 72 Retrospective NR Laboratory
Whittaker [99] 2009 41 Two 25 83 49 Retrospective Yes Culture, Laboratory
Wilson [100] 1974 19 Single 24 Prospective   Culture
Wilson [24] 1989 22 Both 36 120 60.2 Prospective Yes Symptoms, Imaging, Laboratory
Winkler [27] 2008 37 Single 63 183 103 Prospective Yes Symptoms, Imaging, Laboratory
Wolf [101] 2014 92 Both 24 Retrospective Yes Symptoms, Laboratory, Culture
Wroblewski [23] 1986 101 Single 38.8 Prospective NR NR
Yamamoto [102] 2003 17 Two 14 62 38 Retrospective Yes Laboratory
Yoo [103] 2009 12 Single 39.6 135.6 86.4 Prospective Yes Laboratory, Culture
Younger [104] 1997 48 Two 24 63 43 Prospective Yes Culture
Zeller [105] 2014 99 Single 24 41.6 Prospective Yes NA