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Table 1 Risk factors associated with incident cases of active tuberculosis (TB) among inmates from 12 Brazilian prisons during one year of follow-up (N = 1,422)

From: Impact of mass-screening on tuberculosis incidence in a prospective cohort of Brazilian prisoners

Variables N (%) Active TB
   Crude hazard ratio p-value Adjusted hazard ratio p-value
Age (mean ± SD) 32.6 ± 9.7 0.99 (0.95–1.04)a 0.821   
Sex (Male) 1235 (86.8) 2.63 (0.35–19.73) 0.348   
Race
 White 463 (33.9) 1.0    
 Mixed 685 (50.2) 0.94 (0.30–2.98) 0.924   
 Black 170 (12.5) 3.30 (1.01–10.83) 0.048b   
 Indigenous 19 (1.4) -    
 Asian 28 (2.1) -    
Reported any WHO TB symptom at baseline 934 (65.7) 2.63 (0.76–9.09) 0.126b   
Reported productive cough at baseline 325 (22.9) 2.25 (0.87–5.80) 0.094b   
Less than 4 year of schooling 772 (55.5) 1.63 (0.61–4.36) 0.323   
Diabetes Mellitus 0 (0.0) - -   
Current Smoker 730 (51.8) 2.47 (0.88–6.94) 0.085b   
HIV positive 18 (1.3) - -   
Drug use over the last year 739 (52.0) 3.91 (1.29–11.87) 0.016b 3.22 (1.05–9.89) 0.042
Previous incarceration 860 (60.8) 1.03 (0.40–2.66) 0.951   
TST positive 290 (21.0) 1.74 (0.60–5.00) 0.306   
Previous TB 92 (6.6) 3.01 (0.90–10.70) 0.074b   
Knows someone with TB 607 (43.5) 3.45 (1.24–9.73) 0.018b 2.86 (1.01–8.10) 0.049
  1. aPer 1-year increase
  2. bVariables initially included in the multivariate model, which was trimmed through backward selection