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Table 3 Risk factors for Pneumomediastinum of confirmed pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in non-HIV patients

From: Prognostic factors for severe Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia of non-HIV patients in intensive care unit: a bicentric retrospective study

  Pneumomediastinum Non-Peumomediastinum P value
N = 19 N = 63
Age, mean ± SD 51 ± 19 53 ± 16 0.606
Male, n (%) 8(42.1) 26(41.3) 0.948
Apache II, mean ± SD 19 ± 5 19 ± 5 0.948
Underlying conditions
 CTD, n (%) 16(84.2) 49(77.8) 0.544
  ILD, n (%) 1(5.3) 1(1.6) 0.412
  Dermatomyositis, n (%) 1(5.3) 9(14.3) 0.440
 Organ transplant, n (%) 1(5.3) 2(3.2) 0.552
 Hematologic malignancy, n (%) 0(0) 3(4.8) 0.448
 Solid tumor, n (%) 1(5.3) 3(4.8) 0.659
 Corticosteroid therapy, n (%) 17(89.5) 52(82.5) 0.722
Symptom
 Fever, n (%) 17(89.5) 53(84.1) 0.563
 Dyspnea, n (%) 19(100) 56(88.9) 0.192
 Cough, n (%) 14(73.7) 43(68.3) 0.652
Laboratory findings
 White blood cell counts, mean ± SD 7.85 ± 2.92 8.52 ± 4.18 0.518
 lymphocyte counts, mean ± SD 601 ± 618 540 ± 444 0.717
 CD4 cell counts, mean ± SD 246 ± 583 156 ± 186 0.886
 PaO2/FiO2 on ICU admission 144 ± 53 136 ± 70 0.663
Co-infections
 Aspergillosis, pulmonary, n (%) 3(15.8) 15(23.8) 0.544
 Cytomegalovirus, pulmonary, n (%) 12(63.2) 38(60.3) 0.824
Intervals
 Onset to diagnosis, days, mean ± SD 13 ± 5 14 ± 12 0.480
 Onset to intubation, days, mean ± SD 11 ± 6 12 ± 11 0.753
 Onset to TMP/SMZ, days, mean ± SD 9 ± 6 12 ± 13 0.230
Respiratory support
 IPPV during ICU stay, n (%) 18(94.7) 57(90.5) 0.560
  VT maximal(ml/kg), mean ± SD 7.1 ± 2.0 8.1 ± 2.4 0.208
  PEEP maximal(cmH2O), mean ± SD 11 ± 5 10 ± 4 0.415
 NPPV on ICU admission, n (%) 3(15.8) 9(14.3) 0.871
  IPAP(cmH2O), mean ± SD 14 ± 3 11 ± 3 0.118
  EPAP(cmH2O), mean ± SD 7 ± 2 7 ± 2 0.980
 IPPV on ICU admission, n (%) 7(36.8) 39(61.9) 0.054
  VT(ml/kg), mean ± SD 6.8 ± 1.0 7.1 ± 1.2 0.462
  Pplat(cmH2O), mean ± SD 25 ± 4 24 ± 6 0.821
  PEEP(cmH2O), mean ± SD 10 ± 4 10 ± 4 1.000
  FiO2, mean ± SD 0.74 ± 0.15 0.65 ± 0.18 0.066
  Recruitment maneuvers, n (%) 6(35.3) 17(30.9) 0.735
 NRM on ICU admission, n (%) 9(47.4) 15(23.8) 0.048
  1. Values are expressed as the mean ± SD or Number (%), unless otherwise indicated. VT tidal volume of predicted body weight, Pplat plateau pressure, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, FiO2 fraction of inspired oxygen, IPAP inspiratory positive airway pressure, EPAP expiratory positive airway pressure