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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate analysis of risk factors for drug-resistant (not MDR) and MDR TBa

From: Persistently high prevalence of primary resistance and multidrug resistance of tuberculosis in Heilongjiang Province, China

Characteristic   No. (%) of patients Drug-resistant vs. Pan-sensitive
OR (95 % CI)
MDR vs. Pan-sensitive
OR (95 % CI)
Total
(n = 1427)
Pan-sensitive
(n = 613)
Drug-resistant
(n = 489)
MDR
(n = 325)
Univariate
analysis
Multivariate
analysis
Univariate
analysis
Multivariate analysis
Sex
 Male 994(69.7) 425 (69.3) 343(70.1) 226 (69.5) Referent NA Referent NA
 Female 433(30.3) 188 (30.7) 146(29.9) 99 (30.5) 1.0 (0.8–1.3) NA 1.0 (0.7–1.4) NA
Age group, y
 7–34 469(32.9) 234(38.2) 152(31.1) 83 (25.5) Referent Referent Referent Referent
 35–54 587(41.1) 198 (32.3) 215(44.0) 174 (53.5) 1.7 (1.3–2.2) 1.5 (1.1–2.0) 2.5 (1. 8–3.4) 1.7 (1.2–2.5)
  ≥ 55 371(26.0) 181 (29.5) 122(24.9) 68 (20.9) 1.0 (0.8–1.4) 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 1.0 (0.7, 1.5) 0.6 (0.4–0.9)
History of TB treatment
 No 918(64.1) 471 (76.8) 322(65.8) 125 (38.5) Referent Referent Referent Reference
 Yes 509(35.7) 142(23.2) 167(34.2) 200 (61.5) 1.7 (1.3–2.2) 1.7 (1.2–2.1) 5.3 (4.0–7.1) 3.6 (2.6–5.0)
Cavity visible on radiographb
 No 442(35.2) 222 (39.8) 147(34.9) 73 (26.5) Referent Referent Referent Referent
 Yes 812(64.8) 336 (60.2) 274(65.1) 202 (73.5) 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 1.8 (1.3–2.5) 1.6 (1.0–2.2)
With standard hospitalization
 Yes 1021(71.5) 496 (80.9) 396 (81.0) 129 (39.7) Referent NA Referent Referent
 Noc 406(28.5) 117 (19.1) 93(19.0) 196 (60.3) 1.0 (0.7–1.3) NA 6.4 (4.8–8.7) 5.0 (3.6–7.0)
Beijing genotyped
 No 31(10.3) 17 (14.8) 11 (10.2) 3 (3.9) Referent NA Referent NA
 Yes 269(89.7) 98 (85.2) 97 (89.8) 74 (96.1) 1.5 (0.7–3.4) NA 4.3 (1.2–15.1) NA
  1. a MDR multidrug resistance, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, NA not applicable (These variables were not included in the multivariate logistic-regression models)
  2. bThe radiograph results were available with 1254 patients during the period 2007 through 2012
  3. cThe hospitalization days of the cases were shorter than the required by the National guidelines: 21–28, 28–35 and 42–56 days for non-MDR new, non-MDR retreated and MDR cases, respectively [26]
  4. dBeijing genotype analysis with 300 isolates from 2007 to 2009 was available