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Table 3 Univariate analysis of baseline variables at TB diagnosis in case control cohort

From: Determinants of treatment-related paradoxical reactions during anti-tuberculosis therapy: a case control study

Variable (N = 234 total unless otherwise stated) PR (%) (N = 82) Matched control without PR (N = 152) P value*
Demographicsa
 Age (Mean)   33.7 37.0 0.162
 Sex (%) Male 72 (45 %) 72 (47 %)
Female 45 (55 %) 80 (53 %) 0.770
 Ethnicity (%) White 8 (10 %) 26 (17 %)
Black 32 (39 %) 65 (43 %)
East Asian 6 (7 %) 9 (6 %)
South Asian 33 (40 %) 46 (30 %)
Other 3 (4 %) 6 (4 %) 0.663
Baseline TB disease site, symptoms & microbiology
 Site (%) Chest b 29 (35 %) 96 (63 %)
Abdominal 2 (2 %) 4 (3 %)
Brain 2 (2 %) 5 (3 %)
Peripheral lymph nodes 34 (41 %) 4 (3 %)
Other or mixed sites 15 (18 %) 43 (28 %) <0.001
 Systemic Symptoms (%)c (with weight loss) Yes 23 (28 %) 45 (30 %)
No 54 (66 %) 101 (66 %)
Not recorded 5 (6 %) 6 (4 %) 0.901
 Systemic Symptoms (%)c (without weight loss) Yes 27 (33 %) 64 (42 %)
No 50 (61 %) 82 (54 %)
Not recorded 5 (6 %) 6 (4 %) 0.332
 Acid Fast Bacilli (%) Negative 47 (57 %) 88 (58 %)
Positive 25 (30 %) 42 (28 %)
Not performed 10 (12 %) 22 (14 %) 0.770
M. tuberculosis NAAT (%) Negative 8 (10 %) 9 (6 %)
Positive 20 (24 %) 24 (16 %)
Not performed 54 (66 %) 119 (78 %) 0.007
M. tuberculosis Culture (%) Negative 13 (16 %) 37 (24 %)
Positive 62 (76 %) 104 (68 %)
Not performed 7 (9 %) 11 (7 %) 0.256
Immune system functioning
 HIV status (%) Negative 46 (56 %) 101 (66 %)
Positive 18 (22 %) 25 (16 %)
Not recorded 18 (22 %) 26 (17 %) 0.413
 Drug allergies (%) No 34 (41 %) 60 (39 %)
Yes 2 (2 %) 2 (1 %)
Not recorded 46 (56 %) 90 (59 %) 0.688
 Immunosuppression (%)d No 80 (98 %) 130 (8^%)
Yes 1 (1 %) 17 (11 %)
Not recorded 1 (1 %) 5 (3 %) 0.004
Potential immune–modulating lifestyle factors
 Tobacco use (%) No 60 (73 %) 97 (64 %)
Yes 10 (12 %) 37 (24 %)
Not recorded 12 (15 %) 18 (12 %) 0.101
 Alcohol use (%) No 59 (72 %) 85 (56 %)
Yes 8 (10 %) 34 (22 %)
Not recorded 15 (18 %) 33 (22 %) 0.007
Geometric mean (range) baseline blood test resultse (units, number of patients with variable data)
 White blood cell count (cells/μL, n = 229) 7.2 (3.1–16.1) 7.2 (2.1–18.4) 0.953
 Lymphocyte Count (cells/μL, n = 229) 1.6 (0.4–4.2) 1.6 (0.3–6.5) 0.855
 Haemoglobin (g/dL, n = 230) 11.7 (7.7–16.0) 12.0 (7.1–17.3) 0.285
 Albumin (g/dL, n = 225) 38 (16–77) 37 (9–50) 0.501
 Alkaline Phosphatase (U/L, n = 225) 134 (44–823) 123 (14–1074) 0.627
 C-Reactive Protein (mg/L, n = 203) 62 (1–280) 65 (1–396) 0.939
 Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (mm/h, n = 139) 56 (6–132) 46 (2–129) 0.017
 Vitamin D Levels (ng/mL, n = 85) 27.1 (8.6–79.4) 30.9 (6.3–168.0) 0.764
 Lactate Dehydrogenase (U/L, n = 99) 499 (294–1156) 523 (246–2127) 0.699
  1. * P values calculated using Wald tests in conditional logistic regression
  2. aDemographic information available for all patients
  3. bPulmonary, pleural, and mediastinal lymph nodes
  4. cSystemic symptoms are persistent fever and persistent night sweats
  5. dNon-HIV immunosuppressive state such as diabetes mellitus, cancer, chronic renal failure or pregnancy
  6. eLog means were used for analysis to approximate normal distributions for skewed tails