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Table 1 Associations between hrHPV and Reproductive Health and Behavior Variables

From: Population-based prevalence of cervical infection with human papillomavirus genotypes 16 and 18 and other high risk types in Tlaxcala, Mexico

  n (% of Total pop. screened) hrHPV n Prevalence hrHPV (95 % CI) Age Adjusted OR (95 % CI)a Multivariate Adjusted OR (95 % CI)b
Age (years)
30–34 7,083 (23.0) 971 13.7 (12.9–14.5) 1.65 (1.46–1.87) 1.61 (1.42–1.83)
35–39 7,131 (23.1) 809 11.3 (10.6–12.1) 1.33 (1.17–1.51) 1.31 (1.15–1.49)
40–44 6,176 (20.0) 582 9.4 (8.7–10.2) 1.08 (0.95–1.24) 1.09 (0.95–1.25)
45–49 4,402 (14.3) 386 8.8 (7.9–9.6) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
50–54 2,969 (9.6) 304 10.2 (9.2–11.4) 1.19 (1.01–1.39) 1.19 (1.01–1.40)
55–59 2,015 (6.5) 230 11.4 (10.1–12.9) 1.34 (1.28–1.59) 1.32 (1.11–1.58)
60–64 1,053 (3.4) 119 11.3 (9.5–13.4) 1.33 (1.07–1.65) 1.34 (1.07–1.68)
Total 30,829 3401 11.0 (10.7–11.4)   
Marital Status
Unmarried 3, 362 (10.9) 600 17.9 (16.6–19.2) 1.96 (1.78–2.16) 1.65 (1.48–1.83)
Married/Civil Union 27,467 (89.1) 2,801 10.2 (9.8–10.6) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
Age of Sexual Debut
≤17 11,221 (36.4) 1,333 11.9 (11.3–12.5) 1.13 (1.05–1.20) 1.04 (0.97–1.13)
≥18 19,591 (63.6) 2,067 10.6 (10.1–11.0) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
Number of Lifetime Sexual Partnersc
1 partner 21,832 (70.8) 1,950 8.9 (8.6–9.3) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
2 partners 5,910 (19.2) 879 14.9 (14.0–15.8) 1.77 (1.62–1.93) 1.61 (1.47–1.76)
≥3 partners 2,940 (9.5) 556 18.9 (17.5–20.4) 2.34 (2.11–2.59) 1.96 (1.75–2.19)
Number of Sexual Partners in the Last 12 Monthsc
0 partners 5,724 (18.6) 686 12.0 (11.2–12.9) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
1 partner 24,792 (78.2) 2,659 10.7 (10.3–11.1) 0.87 (0.79–0.95) 0.96 (0.87–1.05)
≥2 partners 111 (0.4) 32 28.8 (21.2–37.9) 2.9 (1.90–4.41) 1.75 (1.13–2.70)
Parity
0 7,091 (23.1) 785 11.1 (10.4–11.8) 1 (ref)  
1 or 2 8,511 (27.6) 967 11.4 (10.7–12.1) 1.04 (0.94–1.15)  
3 or more 15,049 (48.8) 1,631 10.8 (10.4–11.3) 1.05 (0.96–1.16)  
History of Hormonal Contraception
Yes 6,417 (20.8) 790 12.3 (11.5–13.1) 1.17 (1.07–1.27) 1.10 (1.01–1.20)
No 24,154 (78.1) 2,587 10.7 (10.3–11.1) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
Current IUD Use
Yes 10,170 (33.0) 1,164 11.5 (10.8–12.1) 1.05 (0.98–1.14)  
No 19,887 (64.5) 2,153 10.8 (10.4–11.3) 1 (ref)  
Condom Use in the last 12 months
Never 25,557 (82.9) 2,682 10.5 (10.1–10.9) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
Almost always 2,777 (9.0) 373 13.4 (12.2–14.8) 1.27 (1.13–1.43) 1.15 (1.01–1.29)
Always 1,716 (5.6) 253 14.7 (13.1–16.5) 1.42 (1.23–1.63) 1.26 (1.09–1.46)
History of a Previous STI
Yes 979 (3.2) 182 18.6 (16.3–21.1) 1.91 (1.62–2.25) 1.54 (1.30–1.84)
No 29,424 (95.4) 3,161 10.7 (10.4–11.1) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
Tobacco Use
Never 29,238 (94.8) 3,160 10.8 (10.5–11.2) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
Ever 964 (3.1) 175 18.2 (15.8–20.7) 1.77 (1.49–2.10) 1.23 (1.03–1.47)
  1. Abbreviations: STI sexually transmitted infections, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aOdds ratios for all the variables with the exception of age itself are adjusted for age. Age was included in the model as a categorical variable (30–34, 35–39, 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64); bAssociation test was adjusted for age, marital status, age of sexual debut, number of lifetime sexual partners, number of sexual partners in the last 12 months, history of hormonal contraception, condom use in the last 12 months, history of a previous STI, and tobacco use; cWomen who reported zero lifetime sexual partners were excluded
  3. Statistically significant p values ≤ 0.05 of the OR's are marked in bold font