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Table 4 Univariable and multivariable GLMM logistic regression analyses of factors associated with pVL non-detectability among HAART-exposed crack cocaine users in Vancouver, Canada, 2005–2013

From: Factors associated with optimal pharmacy refill adherence for antiretroviral medications and plasma HIV RNA non-detectability among HIV-positive crack cocaine users: a prospective cohort study

Characteristic Total sample of crack cocaine users
(n = 438)
Dual crack cocaine and opioid users
(n = 293)
 
Unadjusted OR
(95 % CI)
p-value Adjusted OR
(95 % CI)
p-value Unadjusted OR
(95 % CI)
p-value Adjusted OR
(95 % CI)
p-value
Ageb
 (per 10-year older) 5.24 (3.72 – 7.37) <0.001 1.86 (1.37 – 2.52) <0.001 5.22 (3.45 – 7.89) <0.001 1.59 (1.11 – 2.26) 0.011
Gender
 (male vs. female) 1.86 (1.10 – 3.15) 0.020    1.08 (0.59 – 1.97) 0.804   
Ethnicity
 (Caucasian vs. other) 1.31 (0.79 – 2.17) 0.290    1.38 (0.77 – 2.49) 0.282   
Education
 (<secondary vs. ≥secondary) 1.03 (0.62 – 1.72) 0.909    1.39 (0.77 – 2.49) 0.272   
Homelessa,b
 (yes vs. no) 0.26 (0.19 – 0.36) <0.001 0.39 (0.28 – 0.54) <0.001 0.24 (0.17 – 0.35) <0.001 0.37 (0.25 – 0.56) <0.001
Crack cocaine smokinga,b
 (≥daily vs. <daily) 0.47 (0.36 – 0.61) <0.001    0.39 (0.29 – 0.53) <0.001 0.69 (0.49 – 0.96) 0.028
Heroin usea,b
 (≥daily vs. <daily) 0.35 (0.23 – 0.54) <0.001 0.60 (0.36 – 0.98) 0.042 0.32 (0.20 – 0.51) <0.001   
Crystal methamphetamine usea,b
 (≥daily vs. <daily) 1.09 (0.45 – 2.62) 0.853    1.15 (0.43 – 3.10) 0.779   
Heavy alcohol usea,b
 (≥5 drinks per day vs. <5 drinks per day) 0.70 (0.36 – 1.37) 0.302    0.57 (0.24 – 1.37) 0.209   
Engagement in sex work or drug dealinga,b
 (yes vs. no) 0.58 (0.44 – 0.75) <0.001    0.58 (0.43 – 0.78) <0.001   
Incarcerationa,b
 (yes vs. no) 0.57 (0.38 – 0.86) 0.008    0.49 (0.31 – 0.78) 0.002   
HIV physician experiencec
(<6 patients vs. ≥6 patients) 1.15 (0.51 – 2.62) 0.738    0.84 (0.35 – 2.00) 0.688   
CD4 cell counta,b
 (per 100-cell increase) 1.93 (1.76 – 2.13) <0.001 1.67 (1.52 – 1.83) <0.001 1.98 (1.77 – 2.21) <0.001 1.72 (1.54 – 1.91) <0.001
Years since HAART initiationa,b
 (per year increase) 1.27 (1.21 – 1.34) <0.001 1.06 (1.01 – 1.12) 0.012 1.29 (1.22 – 1.37) <0.001 1.08 (1.02 – 1.14) 0.011
Regimena,b
 (1 pill per day vs. >3 pills per day) 3.11 (1.76 – 5.52) <0.001 3.02 (1.67 – 5.46) <0.001 2.84 (1.45 – 5.57) 0.003 2.60 (1.30 – 5.21) 0.007
 (2-3 pills per day vs. >3 pills per day) 1.70 (1.27 – 2.30) <0.001 1.24 (0.91 – 1.69) 0.179 1.60 (1.13 – 2.29) 0.009 1.14 (0.79 – 1.65) 0.493
Participation in inpatient addiction treatmenta,b
 (yes vs. no) 0.67 (0.45 – 1.02) 0.061    0.58 (0.35 – 0.97) 0.037   
Participation in outpatient detoxification or other outpatient addiction treatmenta,b
 (yes vs. no) 1.10 (0.33 – 3.71) 0.872    1.63 (0.34 – 7.74) 0.539   
Seeing drug counsellors or participation in addiction-related peer support meetingsa,b
 (yes vs. no) 1.32 (0.90 – 1.94) 0.158    1.16 (0.73 – 1.84) 0.532   
Participation in opioid substitution therapiesa,b
 (yes vs. no) –––   –––   2.28 (1.58 – 3.30) <0.001 1.55 (1.02 – 2.34) 0.039
  1. GLMM generalized linear mixed-effect modelling, pVL plasma HIV RNA viral load, HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. a denotes activities/events in the past 6 months
  3. b denotes time-varying variables
  4. c denotes at the time of antiretroviral therapy initiation