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Table 3 Univariable and multivariable GLMM logistic regression analyses of factors associated with optimal pharmacy refill adherence for antiretroviral medications among HAART-exposed crack cocaine users in Vancouver, Canada, 2005–2013

From: Factors associated with optimal pharmacy refill adherence for antiretroviral medications and plasma HIV RNA non-detectability among HIV-positive crack cocaine users: a prospective cohort study

Characteristic Total sample of crack cocaine users
(n = 438)
Dual crack cocaine and opioid users
(n = 293)
Unadjusted OR
(95 % CI)
p-value Adjusted OR
(95 % CI)
p-value Unadjusted OR
(95 % CI)
p-value Adjusted OR
(95 % CI)
p-value
Ageb
 (per 10-year older) 2.29 (1.84 – 2.86) <0.001 1.65 (1.33 – 2.04) <0.001 2.75 (2.06 – 3.68) <0.001 1.72 (1.30 – 2.26) <0.001
Gender
 (male vs. female) 1.50 (1.02 – 2.20) 0.041    1.10 (0.68 – 1.79) 0.696   
Ethnicity
 (Caucasian vs. other) 1.61 (1.12 – 2.32) 0.011    1.40 (0.87 – 2.24) 0.167   
Education
 (<secondary vs. ≥secondary) 0.83 (0.57 – 1.20) 0.327    0.98 (0.61 – 1.58) 0.943   
Homelessa,b
 (yes vs. no) 0.44 (0.34 – 0.58) <0.001 0.58 (0.44 – 0.77) <0.001 0.39 (0.28 – 0.54) <0.001 0.56 (0.40 – 0.79) <0.001
Crack cocaine smokinga,b
 (≥daily vs. <daily) 0.49 (0.39 – 0.62) <0.001 0.64 (0.50 – 0.81) <0.001 0.41 (0.31 – 0.55) <0.001 0.57 (0.43 – 0.75) <0.001
Heroin usea,b
 (≥daily vs. <daily) 0.32 (0.22 – 0.47) <0.001 0.43 (0.29 – 0.65) <0.001 0.30 (0.20 – 0.46) <0.001 0.45 (0.29 – 0.70) <0.001
Crystal methamphetamine usea,b
 (≥daily vs. <daily) 1.07 (0.50 – 2.30) 0.858    0.79 (0.32 – 1.94) 0.609   
Heavy alcohol usea,b
 (≥5 drinks per day vs. <5 drinks per day) 1.17 (0.65 – 2.10) 0.596    1.37 (0.60 – 3.10) 0.452   
Engagement in sex work or drug dealinga,b
 (yes vs. no) 0.59 (0.47 – 0.76) <0.001    0.54 (0.41 – 0.71) <0.001   
Incarcerationa,b
 (yes vs. no) 0.71 (0.49 – 1.02) 0.063    0.63 (0.41 – 0.96) 0.031   
HIV physician experiencec
 (<6 patients vs. ≥6 patients) 0.74 (0.40 – 1.35) 0.322    0.60 (0.29 – 1.24) 0.169   
CD4 cell counta,b
 (per 100-cell increase) 1.39 (1.30 – 1.48) <0.001 1.31 (1.23 – 1.41) <0.001 1.43 (1.32 – 1.55) <0.001 1.34 (1.23 – 1.45) <0.001
Years since HAART initiationa,b
 (per year increase) 1.08 (1.04 – 1.12) <0.001    1.11 (1.06 – 1.16) <0.001   
Regimena,b
 (1 pill per day vs. >3 pills per day) 1.23 (0.80 – 1.90) 0.339    1.29 (0.76 – 2.19) 0.347   
 (2-3 pills per day vs. >3 pills per day) 1.01 (0.79 – 1.30) 0.920    1.07 (0.78 – 1.48) 0.659   
Participation in inpatient addiction treatmenta,b
 (yes vs. no) 0.82 (0.57 – 1.18) 0.294    0.84 (0.54 – 1.32) 0.454   
Participation in outpatient detoxification or other outpatient addiction treatmenta,b
 (yes vs. no) 0.65 (0.20 – 2.09) 0.472    0.43 (0.09 – 2.02) 0.284   
Seeing drug counsellors or participation in addiction-related peer support meetingsa,b
 (yes vs. no) 1.06 (0.76 – 1.48) 0.730    0.84 (0.55 – 1.28) 0.424   
Participation in opioid substitution therapiesa,b
 (yes vs. no) –––   –––   1.71 (1.23 – 2.38) 0.001 1.39 (0.99 – 1.96) 0.056
  1. GLMM generalized linear mixed-effect modelling, HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. a denotes activities/events in the past 6 months
  3. b denotes time-varying variables
  4. c denotes at the time of antiretroviral therapy initiation