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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of HAART-exposed crack cocaine users in Vancouver, Canada, stratified by pVL non-detectability (n = 438)

From: Factors associated with optimal pharmacy refill adherence for antiretroviral medications and plasma HIV RNA non-detectability among HIV-positive crack cocaine users: a prospective cohort study

Characteristic Total
(n = 438)
n (%)
pVL <50 copies/mLa p-value
Yes
212 (48.4 %)
No
226 (51.6 %)
Age (median, IQR) 44 (38–49) 45 (41–51) 42 (36–47) <0.001
Gender
 Male 293 (66.9 %) 149 (70.3 %) 144 (63.7 %) 0.145
 Female 145 (33.1 %) 63 (29.7 %) 82 (36.3 %) reference
Ancestry
 Caucasian 239 (54.6 %) 122 (57.5 %) 117 (51.8 %) 0.225
 Non-Caucasian 199 (45.4 %) 90 (42.5 %) 109 (48.2 %) reference
Education
  < Secondary education 228 (52.1 %) 107 (50.5 %) 121 (53.5 %) 0.462
  ≥ Secondary education 196 (44.7 %) 99 (46.7 %) 97 (42.9 %) reference
Homelessa
 Yes 129 (29.5 %) 36 (17.0 %) 93 (41.2 %) <0.001
 No 306 (69.9 %) 174 (82.1 %) 132 (58.4 %) reference
Crack cocaine smokinga
  ≥ Daily 175 (40.0 %) 72 (34.0 %) 103 (45.6 %) 0.013
  < Daily 263 (60.0 %) 140 (66.0 %) 123 (54.4 %) reference
Heroin usea
  ≥ Daily 48 (11.0 %) 16 (7.5 %) 32 (14.2 %) 0.026
  < Daily 389 (88.8 %) 196 (92.5 %) 193 (85.4 %) reference
Crystal methamphetamine usea,c
  ≥ Daily 9 (2.1 %) 6 (2.8 %) 3 (1.3 %) 0.326
  < Daily 428 (97.7 %) 206 (97.2 %) 222 (98.2 %) reference
Heavy alcohol use (≥5 drinks per day)a,c
 Yes 13 (3.0 %) 4 (1.9 %) 9 (4.0 %) 0.263
 No 425 (97.0 %) 208 (98.1 %) 217 (96.0 %) reference
Engagement in sex work or drug dealinga
 Yes 164 (37.4 %) 72 (34.0 %) 92 (40.7 %) 0.145
 No 270 (61.6 %) 138 (65.1 %) 132 (58.4 %) reference
Incarcerationa
 Yes 58 (13.2 %) 25 (11.8 %) 33 (14.6 %) 0.386
 No 380 (86.8 %) 187 (88.2 %) 193 (85.4 %) reference
HIV physician experienceb
 Previously treated <6 patients 48 (11.0 %) 21 (9.9 %) 27 (11.9 %) 0.418
 Previously treated ≥6 patients 340 (77.6 %) 170 (80.2 %) 170 (75.2 %) reference
CD4 cell counta (median, IQR) 300 (180–450) 360 (260–500) 230 (110–360) <0.001
Years since HAART initiationa (median, IQR) 5.7 (2.2–8.5) 5.9 (2.3–8.7) 5.5 (2.1–8.4) 0.243
Regimenb
 Single tablet per day 34 (7.8 %) 18 (8.5 %) 16 (7.1 %) 0.713
 2-3 tablets per day 121 (27.6 %) 78 (36.8 %) 43 (19.0 %) 0.008
  > 3 tablets per day 230 (52.5 %) 114 (53.8 %) 116 (51.3 %) reference
Participation in inpatient addiction treatmenta
 Yes 35 (8.0 %) 14 (6.6 %) 21 (9.3 %) 0.300
 No 403 (92.0 %) 198 (93.4 %) 205 (90.7 %) reference
Participation in outpatient detoxification or other outpatient addiction treatmenta,c
 Yes 5 (1.1 %) 4 (1.9 %) 1 (0.4 %) 0.203
 No 433 (98.9 %) 208 (98.1 %) 225 (99.6 %) reference
Seeing drug counsellors or participation in addiction-related peer support meetingsa
 Yes 43 (9.8 %) 30 (14.2 %) 13 (5.8 %) 0.003
 No 395 (90.2 %) 182 (85.8 %) 213 (94.2 %) reference
Restricted to dual crack cocaine and opioid users (n = 293)
Participation in opioid substitution therapiesa
 Yes 186 (63.5 %) 98 (72.6 %) 88 (55.7 %) 0.003
 No 107 (36.5 %) 37 (29.4 %) 70 (45.4 %) reference
  1. HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy, CI confidence interval, IQR interquartile range, pVL plasma HIV RNA viral load
  2. a denotes activities/events in the past 6 months
  3. b denotes at the time of antiretroviral therapy initiation
  4. c p-values were derived from Fisher’s exact test
  5. Not all cells added up to 100 % due to some missing values