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Table 5 Descriptive characteristics of students from Antananarivo, Madagascar, with respect to carriage of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

From: Prevalence of nasal colonisation by methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among healthcare workers and students in Madagascar

   Students (n = 685)
    S. aureus MRSA
Variables Total number (Na) Student group (n)a n (%) p b n (%) p b
Previous hospitalisation 47 10 2 (20.0) 0.34* 0 1.0*
No previous hospitalisations 1479 663 78 (11.9)   6 (0.9)  
Previous antimicrobial usec 493 183 19 (10.4) 0.99 1 (0.6) 1.0*
No previous antimicrobial use 919 413 43 (10.4)   4 (1.0)  
Unknown 108      
Skin infection 214 93 5 (5.4) 0.04* 0 1.0*
No skin infection 1300 576 75 (13.0)   6 (1.0)  
Chronic illnessd 119 51 8 (15.7) 0.37 0 1.0*
No chronic illness 1358 586 67 (11.3)   4 (0.7)  
Nursing at homee 486 83 9 (10.8) 0.77 0 1.0*
No nursing at home 1025 576 69 (12.0)   6 (1.0)  
Living in dormatory 190 96 8 (8.2) 0.28 0 0.60*
Not living in dormatory 1306 549 67 (12.2)   6 (1.1)  
Contact with animals f 764 347 41 (11.8) 0.91 2 (0.6) 0.43*
No contact with animals 784 338 39 (11.4)   4 (1.2)  
  1. aFor available data
  2. b Pearson’s χ2 test or * Fishers exact test
  3. cDuring the last 6 months
  4. d Chronic illness affecting the immune system
  5. e Nursing sick family members at home
  6. f Contact with pets and/or livestock such as cattle, poultry, pigs, sheep and goats