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Table 3 Distribution of patient variables across the three main MTBC lineages in Ghana

From: Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium africanum in Ghana

Risk factor MAF Lineage 5 (N = 152) MAF Lineage 6 (N = 112) MTB (Lineages 1–4) (N = 940) OR (95 % CI) (Lineage 5 vs. 1–4) adjOR (95 % CI)a (Lineage 5 vs 1–4) OR (95 % CI) (Lineage 6 vs 1–4) adjOR (95 % CI)a (Lineage 6 vs 1–4)
N (% N (% N (%     
Sex
 Male 96 (63.2) 73 (65.2) 662 (70.6) 1.3 (0.97–1.98)    
 Female 56 (36.8) 39 (34.8) 278 (29.4)     
Age category
 yr 08–25 28 (18.0) 17 (15.2) 181 (19.4) 1.42 (0.82–2.64)    
 yr 26–40 62 (41.0) 49 (43.8) 383 (40.6) 0.96 (0.4–1.96)    
 yr 41–77 62 (41.0) 46 (41.0) 376 (40.0) 1.06 (0.59–1.91)    
Residency
 North 8 (5.3) 8 (7.1) 82 (9.0) 0.58 (0.27–1.22)    
 South 144 (94.7) 104 (92.2) 858 (91.0) ref    
Occupation
 Skilled 35 (23.0) 24 (21.4) 171 (27.2) 0.9 (0.81–1.0)    
 Unskilled 117 (77.0) 88 (78.6) 769 (72.8) ref    
Income (GHC)
 None 65 (42.7) 43 (38.4) 260 (47.3) 0.8 (0.62–0.98)*    
 <100 32 (21.1) 16 (14.3) 136 (14.5) 0.91 (0.76–1.0)    
 100–500 51 (33.5) 45 (40.2) 408 (32.3) ref    
 >500 4 (2.6) 8 (7.1) 58 (5.9) 1.3 (0.97–1.98)    
Smear positivity
 Scanty 1–9 2 (1.3) 0 80 (9.2) 0.6 (0.45–0.72)*    
 +1 34 (22.6) 18 (16.1) 199 (22.8) 0.78 (0.65–1.80)    
 +2 37 (24.3) 28 (25.0) 213 (24.6) 0.98 (0.42–1.84)    
 +3 79 (52.0) 66 (58.9) 352 (40.4) ref    
Ethnicity
 Akan 39 (25.7) 78 (69.7) 482 (51.4) ref    
 Ewe 58 (38.2) 10 (8.9) 116 (12.6) 3.0 (1.5–4.70) 2.79 (1.47–5.29)**   
 Ga 47 (30.9) 11 (9.8) 221 (22.6)   0.85 (0.43–1.69)   
 Other 8 (5.3) 13 (11.6) 118 (13.3)   1.64 (0.53–5.34)   
HIV status
 Positive 28 (29.5) 29 (34.9) 96 (18.5)    2.4 (1.4–3.90)* 2.2 (1.32–3.70)*
Education
 No Education 50 (32.9) 40 (35.7) 231 (26.5) 0.83 (0.75–1.0)    
 Primary 21 (13.8) 15 (13.4) 91 (10.4) 0.72 (0.65–1.11)    
 Secondary 70 (46.1) 47 (42.0) 477 (54.8) 0.96 (0.83–1.30)    
 Tertiary 11 (7.2) 10 (8.9) 72 (8.3)     
BCG Scar
 Present 64 (42.1) 46 (41.1) 430 (41.4) 1.1 (0.69–1.7)    
Smoking
 Yes 25 (16.4) 28 (25.0) 248 (20.6) 0.6 (0.7–1.8)    
  1. aAll variables with an OR above 1.5 or below 2/3 were included in the multivariable model, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.001, MAF = Mycobacterium africanum
  2. MTB mycobacterium tuberculosis sensu stricto