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Table 1 Table summarizing the findings of the studies used in this review

From: Convergence of a diabetes mellitus, protein energy malnutrition, and TB epidemic: the neglected elderly population

First author Year of publication Study design and sample size Main exposure(s) of interest Main outcome(s) of interest Main results and Remarks
Peleg AY 2007 Literature review Glycaemic control Risk of common community acquired infections Further research is needed to improve understanding of the role of diabetes and glycaemic control in the pathogenesis and management of community and hospital acquired infections
Leung CC 2008 Cohort study 42,116 clients aged 65 years or more, Diabetes mellitus TB Among diabetic subjects, higher risks of active, culture-confirmed, and pulmonary but not extrapulmonary tuberculosis were observed, with baseline hemoglobin A1c ≥7 % (vs. <7 %)
Dick Menzies 2011 Review article LTBI TB LTBI therapy should be given only to those with positive tests for LTBI. Underutilized, particularly in LMIC
Matthew J. Magee 2014 cohort of 1366 adult patients DM MDR TB DM did not impact culture conversion rates in a clinically meaningful way, but smoking did.
Holt PR 2001 Review/Perspective Elderly population Malabsorption Nutrition may be compromised rapidly by the reduction in food intake or malabsorption that accompanies many of the conditions that cause diarrhea in the elderly
Cruz-Hervert LP 2012 Cross sectional study of 893 65 years of age or older. 65 years of age or older Clinical and epidemiological consequences of pulmonary tuberculosis Untimely and difficult diagnosis and a higher risk of poor outcomes even after treatment completion emphasize the need for specific strategies in this vulnerable group.
J. Peter Cegielski 2012 Cohort 1982–1992 of 14,189 adults BMI TB Population's nutritional profile is an important determinant of TB incidence.
Nyadzayo 2014 (still in press) Cohort study 410 adults TB Recovery from moderate malnutrition Moderately malnourished adults are less likely to recover their nutritional status compared to non-TB patients when under supplementary treatment
Kurbatova, E. V 2012 Cohort study of 1416 adults in 5 countries predictors of initial sputum culture conversion in MDR TB treatment   Lower but not significant unadjusted rate of sputum culture conversion among patients with DM
Matthew J. Magee 2014 Cohort study of 1,366 adult patients in Georgia MDR TB treatment in DM patients culture conversion among patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB In adjusted analyses, DM did not impact culture conversion rates in a clinically meaningful way
María Eugenia Jiménez-Corona 2013 Cohort study of 1262 patients with pulmonary TB in Mexico Patients with DM clinical consequences of pulmonary tuberculosis Patients with DM and pulmonary TB had more severe clinical manifestations, delayed sputum conversion, a higher probability of treatment failure and recurrence
Meghan A Baker 2011 Systematic review and meta-analysis. quantitative summary evidence for the impact of diabetes on tuberculosis outcomes   DM increases the risk of treatment failure and death combined, death and relapse among patients with tuberculosis.
Christie Y Jeon 2008 13 observational studies (n = 1,786,212 participants) with 17,698 TB cases Patients with DM Active TB disease Meta-analysis shows that DM increases the risk of TB, regardless of different study designs, background TB incidence or geographic region of the study.
Stevenson CR 2007 Review Patients with DM Active TB disease All studies identified statistically significant associations, with a 1.5- and 7.8-fold increase in risk or odds of TB in diabetic patients. Inadequate adjustment of potential major confounders.
Nijland HM 2006 1 prospective pharmacokinetic study (n = 17 adult patients Patients with TB-DM comorbidity Effect on plasma rifampicin levels Study showed 53 % lower rifampicin exposure (AUC0–6 h) in TB-DM patients, compared to TB only patients.
Meghan A Baker 2012 Prospective study Patients with DM Active TB and severe TB The risk of developing tuberculosis increased among those with increasing diabetes severity.
Brendan K. Podell, 2012 60 guinea pigs were randomly assigned to Mtb infected and sucrose-fed (n  =  20), Mtb infected and water-fed (n  =  20), uninfected and sucrose-fed (sucrose control, n  =  10) and uninfected and water-fed (uninfected control, n  =  10). Hyperglycaemia Severity of tuberculosis infection in non-diabetic guinea pigs The exacerbation of insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia by Mtb infection alone may explain why TB is more severe in diabetics with poorly controlled hyperglycaemia compared to non-diabetics and patients with properly controlled blood glucose levels.
J. Peter Cegielski 2012 A prospective study of 13,419 adults from 25 to 72 years of age different levels of nutritional status Incident cases of TB Population's nutritional profile is an important determinant of TB incidence, after controlling for socio-economic factors, excess alcohol consumption, smoking, and DM
Yung-Feng Yen 2016 Population-Based Follow-Up Study of 1608 patients (<18.5), normal (18.5–24.9), and overweight (≥25). TB treatment outcome Insufficient body weight was associated with higher risks of TB-specific and non-TB-specific mortality during TB treatment, particularly in male patients.