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Table 1 The comparison analysis of demography, concomitant diseases, clinical features, and outcomes between tigecycline (TG) and sulbactam (SB) groups

From: Tigecycline-based versus sulbactam-based treatment for pneumonia involving multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex

Variables TG groupa SB groupa p OR (95 % CI)
n = 84 n = 84
Demographic parameters
 Age, yr 69.6 (15.9) 70.6 (15.6) 0.689  
 Male gender 57 (67.9) 58 (69.0) 0.868 0.946 (0.494–1.814)
Concomitant diseases
 Hepatic dysfunction 12 (14.3) 6 (7.1) 0.134 2.167 (0.773–6.075)
 Renal insufficiency 32 (38.1) 32 (38.1) 1.000 1.000 (0.536–1.864)
 Chronic pulmonary disease 22 (26.2) 20 (23.8) 0.722 1.135 (0.564–2.284)
 Heart disease 13 (15.5) 7 (8.3) 0.153 2.014 (0.761–5.333)
 Diabetes mellitus 26 (31.0) 35 (41.7) 0.149 0.628 (0.333–1.183)
 Immune compromise 13 (15.5) 11 (13.1) 0.659 1.215 (0.511–2.891)
 Malignancy 15 (17.9) 20 (23.8) 0.342 0.696 (0.328–1.474)
Surgery 22 (26.2) 15 (17.9) 0.193 1.632 (0.778–3.423)
Clinical conditions
 APACHE II Score 20.1 (6.1) 20.1 (6.1) 1.000  
 Ventilator use 58 (69.0) 75 (89.3) 0.001 0.268 (0.117–0.615)
 Pneumonia involving bilateral lung 51 (60.7) 67 (79.8) 0.007 0.392 (0.197–0.781)
 Polymicrobial pneumonia, overall 66 (78.6) 62 (73.8) 0.469 1.301 (0.638–2.654)
 Polymicrobial pneumonia, coinfection with
  MRSA 26 (31.0) 34 (40.5) 0.198 0.659 (0.349–1.245)
   Pseudomonas aeruginosa 33 (39.3) 23 (27.4) 0.102 1.716 (0.896–3.285)
   Klebsiella spp.b 12 (14.3) 5 (6.0) 0.073 2.633 (0.884–7.840)
   Escherichia coli 2 (2.4) 2 (2.4) 1.000 1.000 (0.138–7.270)
   Enterobacter spp.c 2 (2.4) 2 (2.4) 1.000 1.000 (0.138–7.270)
   Serratia marcescens 10 (11.9) 1 (1.2) 0.005 11.216 (1.402–89.724)
   Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 6 (7.1) 15 (17.9) 0.036 0.354 (0.130–0.962)
 Multisite infections, overall 33 (39.3) 35 (41.7) 0.753 0.906 (0.489–1.678)
  With urinary tract infection 13 (15.5) 19 (22.6) 0.238 0.626 (0.287–1.369)
  With catheter related infection 2 (2.4) 10 (11.9) 0.017 0.180 (0.038–0.851)
  With soft tissue and wound infection 10 (11.9) 5 (6.0) 0.176 2.135 (0.697–6.540)
  With intra-abdominal infection 8 (9.5) 4 (4.8) 0.231 2.105 (0.609–7.279)
  With invasive fungal infectiond 12 (14.3) 4 (4.8) 0.035 3.333 (1.029–10.799)
 Bacteremia during treatment 4 (4.8) 0 (0.0) 0.121 9.447 (0.501–178.291)
 With TG or SB-resistant MDR Acb complexe 16 (19.0) 43 (51.2) < 0.0001 0.224 (0.112–0.448)
Treatment
 Duration, days 14.6 (5.4) 16.4 (7.6) 0.150  
 Combination therapy, overall 45 (53.6) 71 (84.5) < 0.0001 0.211 (0.102–0.439)
  With cephalosporins 20 (23.8) 8 (9.5) 0.013 2.969 (1.226–7.192)
  With colistin 12 (14.3) 0 (0.0) < 0.0001 29.138 (1.695–500.773)
  With carbapenems 5 (6.0) 60 (71.4) < 0.0001 0.025 (0.009–0.070)
  With aminoglycosides 7 (8.3) 1 (1.2) 0.064 7.545 (0.907–62.744)
  With fluoroquinolones 12 (14.3) 4 (4.8) 0.035 3.333 (1.029–10.799)
 Delayed treatment 35 (41.7) 22 (26.2) 0.034 2.013 (1.049–3.863)
Outcomes
 Airway eradication of MDR Acb complex without relapsef 26 (33.3) 47 (63.5) < 0.0001 0.287 (0.147–0.560)
 Defervescence 54 (64.3) 76 (90.5) < 0.0001 0.189 (0.081–0.445)
 Image study of lung
  Improvement 37 (44.0) 39 (46.4) 0.757 0.908 (0.495–1.668)
  Stationary 32 (38.1) 22 (26.2) 0.099 1.734 (0.900–3.342)
  Deterioration 15 (17.9) 23 (27.4) 0.140 0.577 (0.276–1.204)
 Clinical resolution of pneumonia 56 (66.7) 56 (66.7) 1.000 1.000 (0.526–1.899)
 Mortality during treatment 21 (25.0) 15 (17.9) 0.259 1.533 (0.728–3.231)
 30-day mortality 28 (33.3) 25 (29.8) 0.618 1.180 (0.615–2.264)
  1. Abbreviations: TG tigecycline, SB sulbactam, OR odd ratio, CI confidence interval, APACHE acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, MRSA methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MDR Acb multidrug resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii, ESBL extended-spectrum beta-lactamase
  2. aCategorical data are no. (%) of subject, continuous data are expressed as mean (standard deviation)
  3. b16 patients had coinfection with Klebsiella pneumoniae, including 10 with ESBL strains, and 1 had Klebsiella oxytoca-ESBL
  4. c3 patients had coinfection with Enterobacter cloacae, and 1 had Enterobacter aerogenes
  5. d15 patients had candidemia, and 1 had possible invasive aspergillosis diagnosed with positive serum galactomannan
  6. eWith TG-resistant MDR Acb complex during TG treatment in TG group, or with SB-resistant MDR Acb commplex during SB treatment in SB group
  7. f78 patients in TG group and 74 in SB group had available data for evaluation