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Table 2 Results of clinician randomization and the primary outcome

From: Behavioral interventions to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing: a randomized pilot trial

Intervention Randomized Clinicians (n) Antibiotic Prescribing for Visits with Non-Antibiotic-Appropriate ARI Diagnoses Difference in Antibiotic Prescribing Rate between Intervention and Pre-intervention Period % (95 % CI)
Pre-Intervention Year, n/N (%) Intervention Year, n/N (%)
No intervention 4 7 / 57 (12.3) 5 / 136 (3.4) −8.6 (−17.9 to 0.7)
Accountable Justifications 3 14 / 72 (19.4) 8 / 70 (11.4) −8.0 (−20.0 to 4.0)
Suggested Alternatives 3 7 / 44 (15.9) 4 / 51 (7.8) −8.1 (−21.5 to 5.4)
Peer Comparisons 3 31 / 74 (41.9) 8 / 68 (11.8) −30.1 (−44.0 to −16.3)
Accountable Justifications, Suggested Alternatives 4 20 / 128 (15.6) 2 / 95 (2.1) −13.5 (−20.5 to −6.5)
Suggested Alternatives, Peer Comparisons 4 41 / 118 (34.8) 4 / 102 (3.9) −30.8 (−40.3 to −21.3)
Accountable Justifications, Peer Comparisons 4 44 / 187 (23.5) 6 / 206 (2.9) −20.6 (−27.2 to −14.1)
Accountable Justifications, Suggested Alternatives, Peer Comparisons 3 46 / 171 (26.9) 9 / 162 (5.6) −21.4 (−28.9 to −13.8)
Any Accountable Justifications 14 124 / 558 (22.2) 25 / 532 (4.7) −17.5 (−21.4 to −13.6)
No Accountable Justifications 14 86 / 293 (29.4) 21 / 357 (5.9) −23.5 (−29.3 to −17.7)
Any Suggested Alternatives 14 114 / 461 (24.7) 19 / 410 (4.6) −20.1 (−24.5 to −15.7)
No Suggested Alternatives 14 96 / 390 (24.6) 27 / 479 (5.6) −19.0 (−23.7 to −14.2)
Any Peer Comparisons 14 162 / 550 (29.5) 27 / 537 (5.0) −24.4 (−28.7 to −20.2)
No Peer Comparisons 14 48 / 301 (15.9) 19 / 352 (5.4) −10.6 (−15.3 to −5.8)
All groups combined 28 210 / 851 (24.7) 46 / 889 (5.2) −19.5 (−22.8 to −16.3)
  1. ARI acute respiratory infection, CI confidence interval