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Table 2 Logistic regression analyses to investigate demographic and social determinants associated with HSV-1 and HSV-2 seropositivity

From: Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in the Netherlands: seroprevalence, risk factors and changes during a 12-year period

  HSV-1 HSV-2
  Childrena Adultsa Adultsa
  OR [95 % CI]b aOR [95 % CI] OR [95 % CI]b aOR [95 % CI] OR [95 % CI]b aOR [95 % CI]
Pienter
 Pienter-1 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Pienter-2 0.69 [0.55-0.86] 0.68 [0.54-0.85] 0.79 [0.66-0.94] 0.80 [0.67-0.96] 0.94 [0.71-1.25] 0.90 [0.68-1.21]
Gender
 Men Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Women 1.28 [1.09-1.51] 1.32 [1.12-1.56] 1.22 [1.07-1.40] 1.20 [1.04-1.37] 1.46 [1.22-1.74] 1.46 [1.22-1.75]
Age (continuously) 1.21 [1.18-1.23] 1.23 [1.20-1.26] 1.06 [1.05-1.07] 1.05 [1.04-1.06] 1.05 [1.04-1.07] 1.04 [1.03-1.06]
Ethnicity
 Native Dutch Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Western, other 1.01 [0.64-1.59] 1.03 [0.66-1.62] 1.35 [1.06-1.70] 1.42 [1.12-1.80] 1.23 [0.85-1.78] 1.21 [0.84-1.76]
 Moroccan/Turkish 4.02 [2.80-5.78] 4.00 [2.74-5.83] 15.80 [8.15-30.64] 16.30 [8.15-32.61] 0.78 [0.35-1.72] 0.84 [0.37-1.92]
 Surinamese/Aruban/Antillean 2.24 [1.67-3.01] 2.55 [1.89-3.43] 2.46 [1.52-4.00] 2.74 [1.69-4.46] 1.85 [1.01-3.37] 2.02 [1.11-3.66]
 Non-Western, other 2.45 [1.75-3.42] 2.60 [1.78-3.78] 4.47 [2.65-7.56] 4.79 [2.74-8.37] 1.87 [1.05-3.30] 1.98 [1.12-3.49]
Generation of migrantc
 Native Dutch Ref. - Ref. - Ref. -
 1st generation 3.29 [2.36-4.57] - 4.84 [3.49-6.70] - 1.59 [1.11-2.28] -
 2nd generation 1.94 [1.48-2.53] - 1.38 [1.04-1.83] - 1.05 [0.68-1.62] -
Degree of urbanization
 Very high 1.12 [0.85-1.48] 1.16 [0.89-1.50] 0.90 [0.74-1.08] 0.97 [0.81-1.15] 1.07 [0.75-1.52] 1.04 [0.73-1.48]
 Less high Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Education leveld
 Moderate or low 1.43 [1.16-1.77] 1.44 [1.16-1.80] 1.26 [1.07-1.47] 1.23 [1.05-1.45] 0.69 [0.55-0.88] 0.70 [0.55-0.89]
 High Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Unknown 2.06 [1.19-3.57] 1.53 [0.79-2.98] 1.35 [0.67-2.70] 1.80 [0.85-3.82] 1.10 [0.43-2.85] 1.14 [0.41-3.12]
Household
 1-2 persons Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. - -
 3-4 persons 1.58 [0.84-2.95] 1.57 [0.84-2.93] 1.17 [1.02-1.34] 1.14 [0.99-1.31] - -
 > = 5 persons 1.64 [0.86-3.13] 1.69 [0.89-3.20] 1.08 [0.89-1.30] 1.10 [0.90-1.34] - -
 Unknown 3.94 [2.17-7.16] 3.94 [1.93-8.04] 1.15 [0.65-2.03] 2.04 [1.03-4.04] - -
Child in household attending day care
 No Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. - -
 Yes 0.95 [0.71-1.28] 0.95 [0.71-1.26] 1.17 [0.98-1.41] 1.14 [0.94-1.39] - -
 Unknown 1.41 [0.95-2.08] 1.20 [0.58-2.50] 0.48 [0.29-0.78] 0.33 [0.18-0.58] - -
Child attending day care
 No Ref. Ref. - - - -
 Yes 1.41 [1.07-1.85] 1.50 [1.12-2.01] - - - -
 Unknown 1.31 [0.87-1.97] 0.79 [0.36-1.73] - - - -
Ever had sexual intercourse
 No - - Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Yes - - 1.63 [1.29-2.06] 1.69 [1.33-2.16] 2.47 [1.28-4.74] 2.35 [1.23-4.52]
 Unknown - - 1.38 [0.98-1.95] 1.39 [0.97-1.99] 2.43 [1.13-5.22] 2.22 [1.03-4.81]
  1. Logistic regression analyses were unweighted, corrected for the complex survey design
  2. In bold: OR is statistically significant (p < 0.05)
  3. HSV herpes simplex virus; OR odds ratio; aOR adjusted odds ratio; CI confidence interval; Ref reference
  4. aChildren were aged 6 months to 11 years and adults were aged 17 – 44 years in Pienter-1 and 15 – 44 years in Pienter-2
  5. bOR adjusted for: gender, age, ethnicity and degree of urbanization
  6. cNot adjusted for ethnicity and not included in multivariable analyses
  7. dFor children, the education level of the parents was used