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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses for factors associated with any-, high-risk and multiple anal HPV infections

From: The prevalence of human papillomavirus infections and associated risk factors in men-who-have-sex-with-men in Cape Town, South Africa

Risk factor Any HPV HR-HPV Multiple HPV
No (%) COR (95 % CI) p AOR (95 % CI) p No (%) COR (95 % CI) p AOR (95 % CI) p No (%) COR (95 % CI) p AOR (95 % CI) p
Gender
 Male 124 (89.2) Ref     97 (88.2) Ref     99 (87.6) Ref    
 Transgender (MTF) 15 (10.8) 1.0     13 (11.8) 5.3 (1.16–24.16) 0.031    14 (12.4) 10.9 (1.40–84.63) 0.022   
Ethnicity
 Black 46 (33.1) Ref   Ref   40 (36.4) Ref   Ref   39 (34.5) Ref    
 Coloured 35 (25.2) 0.4 (0.18–0.88) 0.023 0.5 (0.15–1.42) 0.177 24 (21.8) 0.3 (0.15–0.67) 0.003 0.4 (0.13–0.96) 0.042 26 (23.0) 0.4 (0.19–0.82) 0.013   
 White 55 (39.6) 1.2 (0.50–2.83) 0.685 0.5 (0.17–1.74) 0.303 45 (40.9) 0.9 (0.44–1.95) 0.847 0.5 (0.19–1.46) 0.219 47 (41.6) 1.2 (0.54–2.42) 0.717   
 Other 3 (2.2) 0.9 (0.08–8.85) 0.890 0.2 (0.01–2.14) 0.162 1 (0.9) 0.2 (0.02–1.62) 0.121 0.0 (0.00–0.55) 0.016 1 (0.9) 0.2 (0.02–1.75) 0.137   
Residence
 City/suburbs 96 (69.1) Ref     73 (66.4) Ref     76 (67.3) Ref    
 Informal settlement 33 (23.7) 1.6 (0.72–3.73) 0.236    28 (25.5) 1.8 (0.88–3.73) 0.108    28 (24.8) 1.7 (0.80–3.42) 0.171   
 Outside city 10 (7.2) 1.0     9 (8.2) 8.1 (1.00–65.96) 0.050    9 (8.0) 7.5 (0.92–60.49) 0.060   
Income status
 No income 24 (17.3) Ref     18 (16.4) Ref     20 (17.7) Ref    
 Income 115 (82.7) 2.1 (1.02–4.44) 0.044    92 (83.6) 1.9 (0.94–3.85) 0.072    93 (82.3) 1.6 (0.80–3.23) 0.187   
Sexual behaviour
Sex partners
 Men and women 11 (2.9) Ref   Ref   8 (7.3) Ref   Ref   7 (6.2) Ref   Ref  
 Men only 128 (92.1) 15.9 (6.95–36.24) <0.001 10.9 (3.88–30.81) <0.001 102 (92.7) 8.8 (3.75–20.41) <0.001 4.6 (1.63–12.74) 0.005 106 (93.8) 11.7 (4.82–28.39) <0.001 5.5 (1.92–15.51) 0.001
Engaged in group sex in lifetime
 No 40 (28.8) Ref   Ref   30 (27.3) Ref   Ref   34 (30.1) Ref    
 Yes 99 (71.2) 2.9 (1.50–5.57) 0.002 4.7 (1.79–12.43) 0.002 80 (72.7) 2.4 (1.29–4.32) 0.006 3.1 (1.35–7.07) 0.006 79 (69.9) 1.8 (0.98–3.28) 0.057   
Shared sex toys in past 12 months
 No 111 (79.9) Ref     85 (77.3) Ref     88 (77.9) Ref    
 Yes 28 (20.1) 1.9 (0.75–4.98) 0.172    25 (22.7) 2.4 (1.03–5.36) 0.042    25 (22.1) 2.2 (0.95–4.97) 0.064   
Transactional sex
 No 92 (66.2) Ref     74 (67.3) Ref     79 (69.9) Ref    
 Paid and/or received money 47 (33.8) 0.6 (0.29–1.05) 0.072    36 (32.7) 0.6 (0.34–1.10) 0.100    34 (30.1) 0.5 (0.25–0.82) 0.010   
HIV serostatus
 Negative 61 (43.9) Ref   Ref   41 (37.3) Ref   Ref   40 (35.4) Ref   Ref  
 Positive 78 (56.1) 8.2 (3.46–19.50) <0.001 4.1 (1.52–11.22) 0.006 69 (62.7) 6.8 (3.50–13.36) <0.001 4.0 (1.82–8.65) <0.001 73 (64.6) 10.0 (4.86–20.74) <0.001 6.9 (3.10–15.42) <0.001
Receptive anal intercourse with men
 Never practised 24 (17.3) Ref     14 (12.7) Ref   Ref   14 (12.4) Ref   Ref  
 Practised 115 (82.7) 7.7 (3.77–15.61) <0.001 3.3 (1.36–8.09) 0.009 96 (87.3) 11.0 (4.97–24.21) <0.001 4.3 (1.80–10.13) 0.001 99 (87.6) 11.3 (5.13–24.95) <0.001 4.2 (1.79–9.65) 0.001
Anal gonorrhoea
 Negative 125 (89.9) Ref     98 (89.1) Ref     100 (88.5) Ref    
 Positive 14 (10.1) 1.0     12 (10.9) 4.8 (1.05–22.25) 0.043    13 (11.5) 10.0 (1.28–78.19) 0.028