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Table 6 Risk factors of contracting illness while traveling / on return in the final multivariable model after backward selection of factors by Akaike information criteriaa. Variables with p-value less than 0.10 in bivariable analysis were chosen to multivariable model. Values are given for proportions with a given risk factor, adjusted odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals, and p-values in multivariable analysis

From: Travelers’ health problems and behavior: prospective study with post-travel follow-up

  Proportion of those contracting AOR (95 % CI) for contracting illness among
  illness among travelers with travelers with the given risk factor in multivariable
  the given risk factor (%) analysis with multiple imputations c p-value
Gender    
male 75 1.00  
female 81 1.73 (1.03–2.91) 0.040*
Age, years b N/A 1.06 (0.994–1.14) 0.076
Age, quadratic term b N/A 0.999 (0.998–1.00) 0.018*
Geographic region    N/A
Europe, Northern America 20 1.00  
Latin America and the Caribbean 66 7.90 (1.66–37.6) 0.009*
Northern Africa, Western Asia 67 11.9 (1.82–78.0) 0.010*
Southern Africa 62 9.72 (1.85–51.2) 0.007*
Western Africa, Middle Africa 79 15.5 (3.50–68.7) <0.001*
Eastern Africa 84 18.5 (4.08–83.8) <0.001*
Eastern Asia, Central Asia 56 6.41 (0.930–44.2) 0.059
South-Eastern Asia 87 21.2 (4.48–100) <0.001*
Southern Asia 91 32.4 (6.24–168) <0.001*
Duration of travel, days b N/A 1.025 (1.00–1.05) 0.048*
Accommodation    N/A
hotel 68 1.00  
home of a local 87 2.36 (0.922–6.06) 0.073
guest house 87 1.78 (0.940–3.36) 0.077
Eating uncooked meat/fish    
did not eat uncooked meat/fish 81 1.00  
ate uncooked meat/fish 66 0.303 (0.147–0.625) 0.001*
  1. Abbreviations: AOR adjusted odds ratios, CI confidence interval, N/A not applicable
  2. aBackward selection eliminated the following factors: location, other close contact with local, having insect stings, and use of utensils
  3. bAnalyzed as continuous variables. Age also on quadratic term, which seems to be better than age only in the model by AIC
  4. c10 datasets used in imputation