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Table 4 Traveler profiles presented by demographics (destination, sex, age, duration of travel, purpose of travel) with travel behavior in bivariable analysis for 460 travelers. Results are given in percentages with the largest group shown in bold

From: Travelers’ health problems and behavior: prospective study with post-travel follow-up

  Number (%) Destination % Sex % Age group (years) % Duration of travel (days) % Purpose of travel %
Africa Asia other p-value male female p-value 0–17 18–35 36–55 56– p-value 1–7 8–29 30–160 p-value vacation business other p-value
Age group (missing data = 0)      <0.001*    0.833          <0.001*     0.056
 0–17 35 (8) 8 7 11   8 7        30 7 3   9 0 3  
 18–35 196 (43) 32 55 41   43 42        22 36 72   42 37 61  
 36–55 120 (26) 30 23 23   27 25        33 29 13   26 39 16  
 56– 109 (24) 31 15 25   21 25        15 28 12   24 24 21  
Duration of travel, days (missing data = 0)      <0.001*    0.473      <0.001*         <0.001d*
 1–7 27 (6) 2 6 20   7 5   23 3 8 4       6 13 0  
 8–29 334 (73) 81 63 73   72 73   69 61 82 85       79 53 29  
 30–160 99 (22) 17 31 7   20 22   9 36 11 11       15 34 71  
Purpose of travel (missing data = 1) a      0.034d*    0.002*      0.056     <0.001d*     
 vacation 383 (84) 78 88 91   86 82   97 81 83 84   81 91 60      
 business 37 (8) 12 5 4   11 7   0 7 13 8   19 6 13      
 other/multiple 35 (8) 10 7 5   3 11   3 12 5 7   0 3 27      
Accommodation (missing data = 11) b      <0.001*    0.008*      <0.001*     <0.001*     <0.001*
 hotel 188 (42) 39 40 61   46 40   34 31 50 55   85 46 15   44 45 18  
 home of a local 71 (16) 23 9 14   9 20   26 16 11 17   15 12 29   12 16 50  
 guest house 190 (42) 39 52 25   45 41   40 53 39 28   0 42 56   44 39 32  
Location (missing data = 22) b      <0.001*    0.083      0.088     <0.001*     0.494
 city 143 (33) 24 34 57   28 36   44 27 36 38   88 31 23   33 38 25  
 countryside/jungle 295 (67) 76 66 43   72 64   56 73 66 62   12 69 77   67 62 75  
Used other than bottled water (missing data = 3) b 25 (5) 8 3 5 0.144 6 5 0.499 3 4 8 6 0.373 0 5 7 0.336 5 11 5 0.379d
Ate uncooked meat/fish (missing data = 4) 58 (13) 9 16 18 0.045* 11 14 0.446 6 17 13 6 0.016* 4 12 18 0.080 13 13 11 0.961d
Ate salads (missing data = 26) 341 (79) 77 78 85 0.427 79 78 0.904 59 83 81 74 0.009* 69 78 83 0.288 80 70 78 0.404
Diet (missing data = 159)      0.087    0.018*      0.010*     0.288     1.000d
 omnivore 274 (91) 92 88 100   96 88   100 85 92 97   100 92 88   91 91 93  
 vegetarian 27 (9) 8 12 0   4 12   0 15 8 3   0 8 13   9 9 7  
Used milk as part of diet (missing data = 161) 293 (98) 99 97 96 0.226d 99 97 0.426d 96 98 99 97 0.599d 100 99 96 0.347d 98 100 100 1.000d
Site of meals (missing data = 12) b      <0.001*    0.099      <0.001*     0.660     0.042*
 restaurant more than 50 % 372 (83) 70 96 87   87 81   53 86 86 83   89 83 81   84 83 68  
 own household and sometimes elsewhere 76 (17) 30 4 13   13 19   47 14 14 17   11 17 19   16 17 32  
Alcohol consumption (missing data = 67) c      0.112    <0.001*      0.001*     0.117     0.025*
 0–2 units per day 281 (61) 72 74 59   61 78   100 70 64 71   65 69 80   70 64 91  
 3– units per day 112 (24) 28 26 41   39 22   0 30 36 29   35 31 20   30 36 9  
Did not always use utensils (missing data = 23) 126 (29) 28 34 18 0.070 28 29 0.877 39 40 24 10 <0.001* 17 22 55 <0.001* 26 39 49 0.004*
Did not wash hands always/often (missing data = 13) 61 (14) 10 16 18 0.147 17 12 0.138 9 21 9 7 0.001* 11 13 17 0.573 14 14 11 0.840
No WC as a toilet (missing data = 7) 74 (16) 22 13 5 0.004* 17 16 0.747 16 19 18 10 0.235 0 16 21 0.037* 16 14 24 0.411
Had fresh water contact (missing data = 160) 109 (36) 27 47 28 0.001* 38 35 0.584 26 50 33 14 <0.001* 6 31 59 <0.001* 37 24 46 0.243
Walking barefoot often/sometimes (missing data = 7) 322 (71) 64 80 69 0.002* 74 69 0.326 88 79 68 55 <0.001* 65 70 77 0.359 74 59 55 0.015*
Unprotected sex with local (missing data = 27) 8 (2) 4 1 0 0.067d 2 2 1.000d 0 1 4 1 0.239d 0 2 3 0.632d 2 0 3 0.587d
Other close contact with local (kissing / sharing meals) (missing data = 26) 82 (19) 23 17 9 0.055 17 20 0.336 18 25 19 8 0.007* 8 15 36 <0.001* 17 24 33 0.039*
Had insect stings (missing data = 22) 335 (76) 75 81 67 0.058 75 77 0.657 59 88 75 62 <0.001* 19 77 93 <0.001* 76 65 91 0.032*
  1. a 14 (3 %) reported two or more purposes of travel
  2. b Categorized according to lowest standard
  3. c Missing data for children under 16 years was replaced with 0 alcohol servings per day
  4. d Fisher's exact test used
  5. * P-value less than 0.05