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Table 2 Factors predictive of HIV, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), and syphilis acquisition among serologically-negative MSM in Bangkok, Thailand (2006–2012)

From: Incidence of and temporal relationships between HIV, herpes simplex II virus, and syphilis among men who have sex with men in Bangkok, Thailand: an observational cohort

  HIV (n = 1031)a HSV-2 (n = 961) Syphilis (n = 970)
Factors HR (95 % CI)b AHR (95 % CI) HR (95 % CI) AHR (95 % CI) HR (95 % CI) AHR (95 % CI)
Age 0.92, 0.89–0.95 0.94, 0.91–0.97 0.97, 0.94–1.01   0.96, 0.90–1.01  
Current living situation
With family Reference   Reference   Reference  
With partner 1.25, 0.77–2.05   1.23, 0.72–2.12   1.86, 0.95–3.66  
Alone/with roommate 1.52, 1.09–2.13   1.26, 0.87–1.84   1.20, 0.70–2.07  
Sexual debut ≥18 years
Yes 0.62, 0.45–0.85   0.63, 0.44–0.90   0.69, 0.41–1.14  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Usual sexual position
Insertive Reference   Reference   Reference  
Receptive/versatile 1.72, 1.23–2.40   0.94, 0.66–1.33   1.01, 0.62–1.67  
Ever coerced into sex
Yes 0.67, 0.47–0.97   0.89, 0.58–1.38   0.63, 0.36–1.12  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Risk behaviors in the last 12 months:
Used Ecstasy
Yes 2.00, 1.11–3.61   1.87, 0.97–3.60   1.83, 0.66–5.08  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Used nitrate inhalants (poppers) 
Yes 2.32, 1.48–3.62   1.72, 0.99–2.99   2.36, 1.16–4.80  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Used methamphetamine-type stimulants
Yes 1.71, 1.08–2.72   1.73, 1.04–2.89   2.26, 1.18–4.33  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Used drugs to enhance sex
Yes 1.68, 1.14–2.47   1.54, 0.99–2.40   2.27, 1.28–4.03 1.85, 1.03–3.33
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Receptive anal intercourse
Yes 5.70, 3.09–10.5 3.10, 1.66–5.79 1.99, 1.24–3.20   1.99, 1.04–3.82  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Cleansing after anal intercourse
Yes 0.77, 0.70–0.85 0.88, 0.79–0.97 0.95, 0.87–1.03   0.94, 0.84–1.05  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Had >1 steady partner
Yes 1.38, 0.94–2.04   2.32, 1.35–3.99   2.74, 1.31–5.71 2.10, 1.00–4.41
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Casual partner:
0 partner Reference   Reference   Reference  
1 partner 1.42, 0.64–3.18   1.95, 0.92–4.16   1.44, 0.57–3.64  
2–4 partners 2.48, 1.41–4.34   1.31, 0.69–2.47   1.33, 0.64–2.77  
5–7 partners 2.56, 1.42–4.64   1.58, 0.83–3.02   1.06, 0.45–2.47  
8–14 partners 2.62, 1.48–4.64   1.84, 1.01–3.33   1.46, 0.70–3.03  
Had transgender partner
Yes 0.76, 0.34–1.71   2.11, 1.16–3.83 2.07, 1.13–3.77 0.32, 0.04–2.32  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Had group sex
Yes 1.87, 1.36–2.57 1.51, 1.08–2.10 1.38, 0.95–2.00   1.20, 0.70–2.07  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Was paid for sex
Yes 1.20, 0.78–1.82   1.71, 1.12–2.63   1.83, 0.96–3.51  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Consistent condom use:
With steady partner(s)
Yes 0.79, 0.57–1.10   1.00, 0.70–1.44   1.37, 1.04–1.82  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
With casual partner(s)
Yes 1.11, 0.94–1.31   1.19, 0.96–1.48   0.85, 0.66–1.11  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
With paid partner (s)
Yes 0.79, 0.61–1.03   1.04, 0.81–1.33   0.38, 0.17–0.88 0.40, 0.17–0.96
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
With client partner(s)
Yes 1.04, 0.83–1.32   1.31, 1.04–1.65   1.34, 0.94–1.89  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Places meet partners:
On the internet
Yes 1.80, 1.27–2.56 1.56, 1.11–2.19 1.68, 1.13–2.52   0.93, 0.54–1.62  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Sauna
Yes 1.79, 1.35–2.38   1.32, 0.90–1.95   0.78, 0.46–1.36  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Disco
Yes 1.95, 1.47–2.57   1.50, 1.03–2.20   1.02, 0.57–1.82  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Places for casual sex:
Sauna
Yes 1.66, 1.22–2.26   1.58, 1.12–2.23 1.64, 1.14–2.34 0.80, 0.48–1.32  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Hotel
Yes 1.18, 0.85–1.64   1.51, 1.05–2.16   1.45, 0.87–2.39  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Own home
Yes 1.83, 1.34–2.50   1.77, 1.24–2.53 1.48, 1.05–2.10 0.89, 0.53–1.47  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Partner’s home
Yes 1.87, 1.34–2.61   1.39, 0.97–1.98   1.13, 0.69–1.83  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Anal discharge
Yes 5.66, 2.31–13.9 4.05, 1.65–9.95 4.57, 1.67–12.5   3.53, 0.49–25.3  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Diagnosed with STI
Yes 1.39, 0.83–2.33   2.32, 1.47–3.64 1.72, 1.09–2.70 4.16, 2.31–7.49 2.73, 1.43–5.22
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Incident syphilis
Yes 3.54, 1.97–6.36 3.16, 1.73–5.76 4.86, 2.69–8.78 3.49, 1.89–6.42 N/A  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Incident HSV-2
Yes 1.84, 1.18–2.88   N/A   3.05, 1.80–5.18 1.93, 1.11–3.36
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Incident HIV
Yes N/A   2.59, 1.69–3.95 2.26, 1.47–3.48 6.03, 3.75–9.69 4.41, 2.65–7.35
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
Prevalent HSV-1
Yes 0.70, 0.51–0.96 0.73, 0.53–0.99 1.49, 1.06–2.08 1.69, 1.20–2.39 0.74, 0.46–1.20  
No Reference   Reference   Reference  
  1. AHR adjusted hazard ratio
  2. CI confidence interval
  3. HIV human immunodeficiency virus
  4. HR hazard ratio
  5. HSV-1 herpes simplex virus 1
  6. HSV-2 herpes simplex virus 2
  7. STI sexually transmitted infection
  8. aNumber of participants varies between infections based on the number contributing follow-up data with at least one follow-up test
  9. bOnly factors significant at p < 0.10 are shown in the HR columns, and only factors significant at p < 0.05 are shown in the AHR columns