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Table 4 Outcomes after transplantation in patients with VAD and without VAD

From: Ventricular assist devices as bridge to heart transplantation: impact on post-transplant infections

  No VAD (n = 84) VAD (n = 35)
Patients with ≥1 post transplant bacterial/candida infection episode, n (%) 39 (46.4) 12 (34.3)
Number of episodes of bacterial/candida infections per patient; mean (SD) 0.83 (1.31) 0.51 (0.82)
Number of post-transplant bacterial/candida infections episodes 70 18
Sites of bacterial/candida infections; n (%)a   
 - Respiratory tract
 - Bacteremia
 - Urinary tract
 - Surgical site
 - Otherb
18 (25.7)
11 (15.7)
12 (17.1)
17 (24.3)
17 (24.3)
4 (22.2)
5 (27.7)
3 (16.7)
7 (38.9)
2 (11.1)
Microorganisms; n (%)   
 - Escherichia coli
 - Coagulase Negative Staphylococci
 - Staphylococcus aureus
 - Pseudomonas sp.
 - Clostridium difficile
 - Enterobacter sp.
 - Candida sp.
 - Polymicrobial
 - Other
10 (14.3)
6 (8.6)
6 (8.6)
6 (8.6)
5 (7.1)
6 (8.6)
6 (8.6)
5 (7.1)
19 (27.1)
2 (11.1)
1 (5.6)
1 (5.6)
0
2 (11.1)
2 (11.1)
1 (5.6)
3 (16.7)
7 (38.9)
Viral infections   
 - CMV infection
 - VZV infection
 - HSV infection
31 (36.9)
8 (9.5)
15 (17.9)
8 (22.9)
3 (8.6)
1 (2.9)
Other fungal infections   
 - Aspergillus spp.infection
 - Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia
7 (8.3)
3 (3.6)
1 (2.9)
0 (0.0)
Length of stay after transplant, days; mean (SD) 60.8 (65.0) 82.9 (127.6)
Patients with treated acute rejection, n (%) 57 (67.9) 22 (62.9)
Survival; n (%) 69 (82.1) 29 (82.9)
  1. There were no significant differences between groups
  2. VAD ventricular-assist device, CMV cytomegalovirus, VZV varicella-zoster virus, HSV herpes simplex virus
  3. aOne episode of infection could be counted multiple times according to the number of infectious sites
  4. bOther infections: 8 gastro-intestinal infections, 5 muco-cutaneous infections, 4 bone/joint infections, 2 catheter-related infections