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Table 5 Adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for all episodes of fever associated with respiratory or gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms between 0 and 12 months of age

From: Non-malaria fevers in a high malaria endemic area of Ghana

Risk factor   Respiratory aHR (95 % CI) p-value GI aHR (95 % CI) p-value
Household factors
Place of residence Urban - - - -
  Rural 0.91 (0.70, 1.17) 0.442 1.02 (0.74, 1.41) 0.884
Household size <5 - - - -
  5–9 1.02 (0.89, 1.17) 0.729 0.89 (0.76, 1.06) 0.186
  10+ 1.08 (0.85, 1.37) 0.541 1.36 (1.05, 1.77) 0.021
Socio-economic Least poor - - - -
status Less poor 1.23 (1.00, 1.51) 0.050 1.38 (1.06, 1.80) 0.015
  Poor 1.30 (1.03, 1.65) 0.027 1.28 (0.97, 1.69) 0.083
  More poor 1.34 (1.08, 1.66) 0.008 1.47 (1.12, 1.94) 0.006
  Very poor 1.15 (0.91, 1.46) 0.248 1.46 (1.10, 1.95) 0.009
Thatched roof No - - - -
  Yes 1.05 (0.89, 1.23) 0.575 1.15 (0.96, 1.38) 0.121
Animals in household No - - - -
  Yes 0.99 (0.86, 1.14) 0.908 1.13 (0.94, 1.35) 0.191
Distance from health <1 km - - - -
centre 1–4.9 km 0.92 (0.74, 1.15) 0.464 0.90 (0.68, 1.18) 0.430
  5–7.9 km 1.25 (1.04, 1.50) 0.017 1.30 (1.05, 1.61) 0.015
  ≥8 km 1.06 (0.82, 1.36) 0.649 1.51 (1.17, 1.94) 0.001
Maternal factors
Gravidity Primigravid - - - -
  Multigravid 1.05 (0.88, 1.24) 0.592 0.83 (0.68, 1.00) 0.052
Number of IPTp 0 - - - -
courses 1 1.14 (0.77, 1.70) 0.509 1.14 (0.70, 1.85) 0.596
  2 1.12 (0.78, 1.61) 0.539 1.28 (0.82, 2.01) 0.273
  3 1.31 (0.93, 1.86) 0.125 1.67 (1.08, 2.59) 0.022
Placental infection Uninfected - - - -
  Infected 0.95 (0.82, 1.10) 0.529 0.97 (0.82, 1.13) 0.668
Infant factors
Birth weight Normal - - - -
  Low birth weight 1.27 (1.03, 1.57) 0.025 1.22 (0.96, 1.55) 0.104
Sex Male - - - -
  Female 0.87 (0.76, 0.98) 0.027 0.98 (0.84, 1.15) 0.832
Season of birth Dec–Mar - - - -
  Apr–Nov 1.51 (1.29, 1.76) <0.001 1.54 (1.28, 1.85) <0.001
Bednet use High - - - -
  Medium 1.15 (0.98, 1.33) 0.081 0.97 (0.80, 1.17) 0.724
  Low 1.11 (0.95, 1.31) 0.195 1.04 (0.87, 1.26) 0.643