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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate associations between characteristics of the participant, the partner and partnership, and unprotected anal intercourse, in 1781 partnerships among 577 MSM. Results of random effects modelling. Amsterdam 2008-9

From: Does online dating lead to higher sexual risk behaviour? A cross-sectional study among MSM in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

   Univariate Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c
  No. of partnerships with UAI OR (95 % CI) aOR (95 % CI) aOR (95 % CI) aOR (95 % CI)
  n/N     
Dating location   P = 0.031    
 Offline 210/903 (23.3 %) 1    
 Online 232/878 (26.4 %) 1.36 (1.03–1.81)    
Self-perceived HIV status participant   P < 0.001    
 HIV-negative 138/1076 (12.8 %) 1    
 HIV-positive 245/497 (49.3 %) 11.70 (7.40–18.45)    
 Unaware 59/208 (28.4 %) 3.55 (2.02–6.22)    
Dating location * HIV status participant   P < 0.001 P < 0.001 P < 0.001 P < 0.001
Offline partner * HIV negative participant 69/549 (12.6 %) 1 1 1 1
Offline partner * HIV positive participant 114/246 (46.3 %) 9.67 (5.60–16.71) 7.70 (4.43–13.39) 13.02 (7.05–24.03) 10.14 (5.32–19.30)
Offline partner * HIV unaware participant 27/108 (25.0 %) 2.88 (1.40–5.89) 2.63 (1.26–5.48) 7.02 (3.12–15.79) 4.30 (1.81–10.23)
Online partner * HIV negative participant 69/527 (13.1 %) 1.07 (0.71–1.62) 1.04 (0.69–1.59) 0.93 (0.60–1.43) 0.94 (0.59–1.48)
Online partner * HIV positive participant 131/251 (52.2 %) 15.55 (8.86–27.30) 12.67 (7.20–22.29) 18.65 (10.00–34.80) 16.41 (8.55–31.52)
Online partner * HIV unaware participant 32/100 (32.0 %) 4.73 (2.34–9.57) 4.87 (2.38–9.96) 12.99 (5.86–28.77) 11.00 (4.76–25.33)
Demographics of the participant      
Age in years categorised   P = 0.004 P = 0.219 P =0.230 P = 0.222
  < 25 10/134 (7.5 %) 0.23 (0.08–0.70) 0.45 (0.16–1.22) 0.40 (0.14–1.12) 0.40 (0.13–1.19)
 25–29 57/243 (23.5 %) 1.30 (0.61–2.75) 1.39 (0.70–2.78) 1.29 (0.63–2.64) 1.32 (0.62–2.82)
 30–34 62/309 (20.1 %) 1 1 1 1
 35–39 100/362 (27.6 %) 1.51 (0.77–2.98) 1.37 (0.74–2.55) 1.34 (0.71–2.55) 1.36 (0.69–2.66)
 40–44 98/353 (27.8 %) 1.57 (0.79–3.12) 1.18 (0.63–2.22) 1.06 (0.55–2.05) 0.87 (0.43–1.75)
  ≥ 45 115/380 (30.3 %) 2.09 (1.06–4.11) 1.39 (0.75–2.59) 1.31 (0.67–2.57) 1.16 (0.57–2.35)
Ethnic group   P = 0.311 P = 0.151 P = 0.321 P = 0.470
 Dutch 316/1285 (24.6 %) 1 1 1 1
 Western, non-Dutch 45/221 (20.4 %) 0.89 (0.45–1.73) 0.71 (0.39–1.28) 0.76 (0.40–1.42) 0.68 (0.35–1.31)
 Non-western 67/221 (30.3 %) 1.60 (0.83–3.06) 1.49 (0.85–2.63) 1.37 (0.74–2.53) 1.05 (0.55–2.01)
Sexual behaviour of the participant      
No. of male sex partners in preceding 6 months, categorized   P < 0.001 P = 0.255 P = 0.345 P = 0.570
  < 5 62/333 (18.6 %) 1 1 1 1
 5–9 107/528 (20.3 %) 1.34 (0.74–2.43) 1.16 (0.67–2.00) 1.22 (0.69–2.14) 1.11 (0.62–2.01)
 10–24 149/574 (26.0 %) 1.79 (0.99–3.22) 1.27 (0.75–2.18) 1.27 (0.73–.2.20) 1.09 (0.61–1.95)
 25–49 63/211 (30.0 %) 2.27 (1.08–4.76) 1.40 (0.71–2.78) 1.36 (0.67–2.77) 1.18 (0.56–2.48)
  ≥ 50 61/135 (45.2 %) 6.79 (2.86–16.13) 2.48 (1.12–5.50) 2.43 (1.06–5.56) 2.08 (0.86–5.00)
Characteristics of the partnership      
Age difference (yrs) participant - partner, categorised   P = 0.482   P = 0.121 P = 0.109
 Partner is >5 years older than participant 72/279 (25.8 %) 1   1 1
 Partner & participant differ ≤5 years in age 180/767 (23.5 %) 0.74 (0.45–1.21)   0.63 (0.37–1.07) 0.68 (0.39–1.19)
 Partner is >5 years younger than participant 187/723 (25.9 %) 0.79 (0.46–1.35)   0.85 (0.47–1.56) 1.01 (0.53–1.92)
Etnic concordance participant - partner   P = 0.60   P = 0.609 P = 0.320
 Concordant ethnicity 193/767 (25.2 %) 1   1 1
 Different ethnicity 249/1014 (24.6 %) 0.96 (0.68–1.34)   1.10 (0.76–1.60) 1.22 (0.82–1.81)
Concordance in life styles participant - partner   P = 0.115   P = 0.023 P = 0.015
 No difference in life styles 186/703 (26.5 %) 1   1 1
 Differences in life styles 256/1078 (23.8 %) 0.75 (0.52–1.07)   0.66 (0.46–0.95) 0.63 (0.43–0.92)
HIV concordance participant -partner   P <0.001   P < 0.001 P < 0.001
 Same HIV status 253/789 (32.1 %) 1   1 1
 Different HIV status 32/135 (23.7 %) 0.24 (0.12–0.47)   0.14 (0.07–0.27) 0.15 (0.08–0.30)
 HIV status unknown of participant or partner 157/857 (18.3 %) 0.29 (0.20–0.43)   0.19 (0.12–0.29) 0.25 (0.16–0.40)
Partnership type   P = 0.055    P = 0.413
 Known partner 289/1137 (25.4 %) 1    1
 Anonymous partner 135/589 (22.9 %) 0.70 (0.49–1.01)    1.20 (0.77–1.88)
Sex frequency with partnerd   P < 0.001    P < 0.001
 Once 186/961 (19.4 %) 1    1
 2–5 times 167/624 (26.8 %) 1.98 (1.40–2.80)    1.74 (1.17–2.58)
 5–10 times 50/129 (38.8 %) 3.58 (1.99–6.45)    2.10 (1.09–4.08)
  > 10 times 39/66 (59.1 %) 16.29 (7.07–37.52)    10.38 (4.29–25.15)
Group sex with partner   P < 0.001    P = 0.077
 No 337/1518 (22.2 %) 1    1
 Yes 105/262 (40.1 %) 2.54 (1.65–3.89)    1.55 (0.95–2.52)
Sex-related substance use in partnership      
Sex-related use of at least 2 substances other than alcohol   P < 0.001    P < 0.001
 No 288/1467 (19.6 %) 1    1
 Yes 154/313 (49.2 %) 5.37 (3.51–8.21)    2.32 (1.44–3.75)
  1. Abbreviations: UAI Unprotected anal intercourse, MSM men who have sex with men, OR odds ratio, aOR adjusted odds ratio
  2. aModel 1 includes, besides dating location, the following co-variates of the participant: age; self-perceived HIV status; and no. of sex partners in preceding 6 months
  3. bModel 2 additionally includes variables concerning the partnership
  4. cModel 3 additionally includes variables concerning sexual behavior in the partnership
  5. dOverlapping categories were stated in the questionnaire
  6. *indicates interaction term