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Table 4 Comparison of non-cervical HPV infections and cervical HPV infections in same or similar study populations

From: The incidence, clearance and persistence of non-cervical human papillomavirus infections: a systematic review of the literature

Ref, site Population, age (years) Incidence (95 % CI) Clearance (95 % CI)
   Unit Any HR 16 18 Inf. type Unit Any HR 16 18
Darwich; Spain; Penile [20] HIV + ve MSM, 20- > 69 Per 100py - - 1.7 (0.8–2.9) 0.4
(0.1–1.1)
Prev Per 100py - - 29.4
(15.1–51.4)
40.0
(8.2–116.9)
  HIV + ve MSW, 20- > 69 Per 100py - - 1.4
(0.4–3.7)
0.3 (ND) Prev Per 100py - - 29.5
(10.8–64.2)
14.6
(−)
Videla; Spain; Cervical [64] HIV + ve women, 20–64 % at 36 m - - 9
(3.4–18.5)
7
(2.6–14.6)
Prev % at 36 m - - 46
(26.6–66.6)
29
(3.7–71.0)
Comment: Study period 1999–2003 for women v. 2005–2009 for men
Mbulawa; South Africa; Penile [22] HIV + ve/-ve Men in a relationship, 19–67 Per 100py 66.8 (TS, first)
(52.3–83.0)
35.7 (28.1–45.4) 3.8
(2.2–6.5)
4.0
(2.4–6.8)
Prev/Inc Per 100py 114.1 (TS)
(100–130.7)
124.9
(106.2–144.7)
121.5
(74.8–197.4)
160.0
(109.4–234.0)
Mbulawa; South Africa; Cervical [22] HIV + ve/-ve Women in a relationship, 18–66 Per 100py 40.7 (TS)
(31.7–52.2)
18.7 (13.8–25.7) 2.4
(1.3–4.7)
1.4
(0.6–3.3)
Prev/Inc Per 100py 80.3 (TS)
(68.4–94.2)
74.7
(61.3–91.4)
38.9
(16.7–90.5)
127.9
(85.2–94.2)
Comment: Incidence and clearance significantly higher in men v. women. In type- adjusted analyses, incidence remained higher in men by age group and HIV status; clearance remained higher in men by age group and HIV + ve (96.4 versus 66.0/100 person-years), but not HIV-ve (128.1 versus 132.1/100 person-years)
Giuliano; USA (Arizona); Male genital [25] Adult men, 18–44 Per 100py 46.1 (NTS, total)
(41.8–61.2)
35.3 (NTS, first)
(27.4–44.9)
25.0)
(19.2–31.9)
18.6)
(13.4–25.0)
5.3
(3.4–9.2)
1.0
(0.2–2.9)
- - - - - -
Giuliano; USA (Arizona); Cervical [32] Women attending gynecology clinic,18–35 Per 100py 35.3 (NTS, first)
(24.7–48.8)
- 7.1
(3.7–12.1)
1.0
(0.1–3.5)
- - - - - -
Comment: Study period 2003–2005 for men v. 1996–1999 for women; follow-up at 6, 12, and 24 months for men v. 4 and 10 months for women. Med time to clearance anal v. cervical: 5.9 m (5.7–6.1) v. ~9 m for any HPV; 5.8 m (5.5–6.1) v. 8.5 m for HR-HPV. PGMY09/11 assay used to detect types 61, 62, 64, 67, 69, 72, 81, IS39, and CP6108 in anal but not cervical samples
Goodman; USA (Hawaii); Anal [36, 39] Sexually active women, 18–85 Per 100py 56.3 (NTS, first)
(48.5–65.0)
23.4
(19.2–28.3)
3.0
(1.8–4.8)
2.3
(1.2–3.9)
Inc Per 100py 89.3 (TS)
(67.8–115.4)
110.0
(83.3–142.4)
141.2
(73.0–246.7)
130.0
(47.6–282.8)
Goodman; USA (Hawaii); Cervical [41] Sexually active women, 18–85 Per 100py 15.6 (NTS, first)
(12.9–18.7)
11.1
(9.0–13.6)
2.1
(1.4–3.2)
0.6
(0.2–1.2)
Inc Per 100py 85.1 (TS)
(64.2–110.4)
92.0
(67.8–122.0)
86.4
(41.4–158.9)
69.7
(14.4–203.6)
Comment: 431 of 972 women in cervical analysis as per availability of anal sample, complete questionnaire data, and valid HPV testing results. Med time to clearance anal v. cervical: 7.8 m (5.2–9.2) v. 8.5 m (5.8–12.6) for any HPV; 4.9 m (4.3–8.0) v. 8.0 m (5.5–11.8) for HR HPV; 4.3 m (3.4–11.4) v. 9.5 m (4.4–23.8) for HPV16; 6.9 (4.6–12.0) v. 14.0 (4.8–ND) for HPV18
Moscicki;USA; (California); Anal [40] Sexually active women, 13–21 - - - - - Prev % at 12 m - 29.7 (TS 2 + neg)
(19.0–41.7)
- -
Moscicki;USA (California);
Cervical [42]
Sexually active women, 13–22 - - - - - Prev % at 12 m - ~35 % (NTS) - -
Comment: Anal and cervical analyses conducted on two partially overlapping cohorts of 75 and 531 women, respectively. Clearance defined as time to first of 2 consecutive negative results; data for any HPV not presented as cervical assay detected only 5 of 19 low-risk types detected by anal infection assay. HPV types 68, 69, 73, and 82 defined as HR types in analysis of anal but not cervical infection; ~35 % clearance at 12 m for cervical infections estimated from provided Kaplan-Meier curves
Winer; USA;
Vulvovaginal [43]
Female university students, 18–20 100py 16.0 (NTS, first)
(13.7–18.6)
- - - - - - - - -
Winer; USA;
Cervical [43]
Female university students, 18–20 100py 12.7 (NTS, first)
(10.8–14.9)
- - - - - - - - -
Comment: Separate vulvovaginal and cervical swabs collected from 444 initially HPV-DNA-negative women. 35.4 % of infections were present at both sites
Kero, Finland, Male Genital [30] Partners of pregnant women, 20–52 % at 7 years 32.3 (NTS)
(16.7–51.4)
- - - Prev % at 7 years 90 (TS)
(55.5–99.7)
- - -
Kero; Finland; Oral [30] Pregnant women, 19–46 % at 7 years 14.0 (NTS)
(5.3–27.9)
- - - Prev % at 7 years 100 (TS)
(29.2–100)
- - -
Kero; Finland; Cervical [30] Pregnant women, 19–46 % at 7 years 16.7 (NTS)
(6.4–32.8)
- - - Prev % at 7 years 70 (TS)
(34.8–93.3)
- - -
Comment: Analysis based on only 46 men and 46 women returning for follow-up at 84 months. At year 7 the same infecting HPV genotype was detected in 11 % (95 % CI 0.3–48.2) and 30 % (6.7–65.2) of mean and women, respectively. HPV status during interval visits was not taken into account.
  1. Note: For male versus female comparison only date for penile/male genital infections versus cervical infections are presented
  2. Abbreviations: m months, − data not provided, TS type-specific incidence defined as at least one positive test for any HPV type or HR-HPV type not detected at baseline, NTS non-type-specific incidence defined as at least one positive test for any HPV type or HR-HPV type among those negative for any HPV DNA or any HR-HPV DNA at baseline