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Table 2 Incidence and clearance of penile and other male genital HPV infections

From: The incidence, clearance and persistence of non-cervical human papillomavirus infections: a systematic review of the literature

Author (ref) Population, age (years) Incidence Clearance
   Unit Any HPV HR 16 18 Type of Infection Unit of clearance Any HPV HR 16 18
Penile             
Tobian [19] HIV-ve, 15–49 HIV + ve,15–49 per 100py   32.9 (TS) (30.0–36.0)
66.5 (60.4–72.2)
4.2
(3.1–5.6)
10.4
(6.9–14.7)
3.7
(2.6–5.0)
8.0
(5.1–11.8)
Prevalent per 100py   170.2 (TS)
(156.7–184.4)
114.7
(103.3–129.1)
168.2
(130.0–213.9)
70.3
(47.1–101.0)
178.3
(125.6–245.8)
122.8
(83.4–174.3)
Gray [18] HIV-ve I, 15–49 HIV-ve C, 15–49 per 100py - 19.7 (15.3–24.9)
29.4 (24.6–34.9)
3.7
(1.0–6.3)
4.9
(3.1–7.6)
1.7
(0.6–3.7)
5.6
(3.6–8.4)
Prevalent per 100py    190.9
(118.2–291.8)
167.6
(113.9–237.8)
285.7
(158.4–466.8)
157.9
(88.4–260.4)
Serwadda [16] HIV + ve I, 15–49 HIV + ve C, 15–49 % at 24 m - 42.0 (TS) (31.1–55.5)
57.0 (46.3–67.2)
5.8
(1.6–14.2)
14.9
(7.7–25.0)
4.3
(0.9–12.0)
11.1
(5.2–20.1)
Prevalent % at 24 m    66.7
(34.9–90.1)
63.2
(38.4–83.7)
72.7
(39.0–94.0)
91.7
(61.5–99.8)
Kjaer [63] Military, 18–29 % at 6 m 13.8 (NTS) (8.6–19.0) - - - - - - - - -
Backes [17] UnC, 17–24 per 100py All: 59.2 (NTS, first) (51.6–67.6) Glans: 53.3 (46.1–60.5) Shaft: 25.9 (22.3–30.0) All: 37.3
(32.0–43.2)
Glans: 32.8
(28.1–38.0)
Shaft: 15.7
(13.1–18.7)
All: 13.1
(10.7–15.6)
Glans: 10.3
(8.3–12.7)
Shaft: 5.3
(3.8–7.0)
All: 4.3
(3.1–5.9)
Glans: 3.7
(2.6–5.3)
Shaft: 1.8
(1.1–2.9)
- - - - - -
Mbulawa [22] All, 18–66 HIV-ve, 18–66 HIV + ve 18–66 per 100py 66.8 (TS, first) (52.3–83.0) 62.3 (47.2–79.5) 96.5 (57.1–163.2) 35.7
(28.1–45.4)
29.2
(21.9–39.1)
72.9
(47.2–112.8)
3.8
(2.2–6.5)
4.0
(2.4–6.8)
Incident per 100py 114.1 (TS)
(100.0–129.7)
128.2
(115.4–141.9)
96.4
(83.8–110.1)
123.9
(106.2–144.7)
121.5
(74.8–197.4)
160.0
(109.4–234.0)
Darwich [20], Videla [23] HIV + ve MSM, 20- > 69
HIV + ve MSW, 20- > 69
per 100py 11.6 (NTS, first) (8.8–14.9)
5.1 (2.4–9.4)
- 1.7
(0.8–2.9)
1.4
(0.4–3.7)
0.4
(0.1–1.1)
0.4
(−)
Prevalent per 100py 27.1 (NTS)
(20.0–35.6)
23.6
(14.8–35.6)
- 29.4
(15.1–51.4)
29.5
(10.8–64.2)
40.0
(8.2–116.9)
14.6
(−)
Wikström [21] MSW, 18–54 % at 3.5ma 17.1 (TS) (9.4–27.5) 11.4
(5.6–19.9)
4.5
(1.3–11.2)
0
(0–4.1)
Prevalent % at 3.5ma- 41.7 (TS)
(15.2–72.3)
42.9
(9.9–81.6
20
(0.5–71.6)
100 (1 case only)
Giuliano [53] HIV-ve, 18–70 per 100py 46.1 (NTS, first) (41.2–51.6) 26.7
(23.8–29.9)
5.3
(4.3–6.4)
2.3
(1.7–3.0)
- - - - - -
Genital             
Giuliano [25]
(coronal sulcus, glans, shaft, scrotum)
Men, 18–44 per 100py 46.1 (NTS, Total)
(41.8–61.2) 35.3 (NTS, first)
(27.4–44.9)
25.0
(19.2–31.9)
18.6
(13.4–25.0)
5.8
(3.4–9.2)
1.0
(0.2–2.9)
Prevalent % at 6 m
% at 12 m
% at 18 m
55.5 (NTS) 74.8
89.3
58.3
81.0
100
- -
Morales [26] (scrotum, shaft, balano-preputial groove, urinary meatus) MSW, median 36 per 100py 14.8 (NTS, unclear)
(11.8–18.2)
6.7
(4.9–8.9)
1.7
(0.8–2.8)
0.4
(0.1–1.1)
- - - - - -
Partridge [29] (glans &urethral meatus, shaft, scrotum) MSW, 18–20 % at 24 m 62.4 (NTS, first)
(52.6–72.2)
47.9
(38.6–58.0)
19.5
(14.0–27.2)
7.5
(4.1–13.6)
- - - - - -
Lajous [27] (shaft, coronal sulcus, scrotum urethral meatus) Male soldiers, 16–40 per 100py 21.5 (NTS)
(15.6–28.7)
14.3
(9.8–19.9)
2.8
(1.3–5.3)
1.6
(0.5–3.6)
Prevalent % at 12 m 70.6 (TS)
(61.9–78.4)
69.0
(59.0–77.9)
68.8
(41.3–89.0)
100
(66.4–100)
Albero [28] (shaft, coronal sulcus, glans, scrotum) HIV-ve men UnC, 18–70
HIV-ve men Circ, 18–70
per 100py 50.5 (NTS, first)
(46.4–54.9)
45.6
(41–50.5)
28.4
(26.2–30.8)
28.7
(25.9–31.8)
5.8
(5–6.6)
6.6
(5.6–7.8)
2.5
(2–3)
2.9
(2.3–3.7)
- - - - - -
Kero [30] (penis/urethra) Male partners of pregnant women, 20–52 % at 7 years 32.3 (NTS)
(16.7–51.4)
- - - Prevalent % at 7 years 88.9 % (TS)
(51.8–99.7)
- - -
  1. Abbreviations: MSM men who have sex with men, MSW men who have sex with women, py person-years, UnC Uncircumcised, Circ Circumcised, m months, I Intervention (immediate circumcision), C Control (circumcision delayed for 24 months), TS type-specific incidence defined as at least one positive test for any HPV type or HR-HPV type not detected at baseline, NTS non-type-specific incidence defined as at least one positive test for any HPV type or HR-HPV type among those negative for any HPV DNA or any HR-HPV DNA at baseline
  2. aMean interval between visits 3.5 m: Results at visit 1 and 2 considered here