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Table 1 Summary of 38 articles included in the review

From: The incidence, clearance and persistence of non-cervical human papillomavirus infections: a systematic review of the literature

Author, study location (ref) Study year Population Age Number Follow-up period (timing of follow-up visits) Mean or median follow-up Anatomical site Outcomes (definition used for any/HR-HPV)c
Tobian, Uganda [19] 2003–2007 HIV + ve/-ve men 15–49 999 2 years (6, 12, 24 m) Mean 14.4 m Penile Inc (TS, total)
Clr (TS)
Kjaer, Denmark [63] 2000–2003 Military servicemen 18–19 374 6 m (6 m) Range 5.4–7.8 m Penile Inc (NTS)
Backes, Kenya [17] 2002–2005 Uncircumcised men 17–24 966 1 year (6, 12 m) Median 12.1 m Penile Inc (NTS, first)
Mbulawa, South Africa [22] Not reported HIV + ve/-ve men 19–67 486 2 years (6, 12, 18, 24 m) - Penile Inc (TS, first)
Clr (TS)a
Videla, Spain [23] 2005–2009 HIV + ve men 20- > 69 733 5 years (annual) Median 24 m Penile, anal, oral Inc (NTS, first)
Clr (NTS)
Wikström A, Sweden [21] Not reported MSW, sexually active without clinical HPV 18–54 235 (1–5 visits) Mean 3.5 m between visits Penile Inc (TS)
Clr/Pers (TS)
Gray, Uganda [18] 2003–2006 HIV-ve married men 15–49 840 24 m (6, 12, 24 m) - Penile Inc
Clr
Serwadda, Uganda [16] 2003–2007 HIV + ve men 15–49 210 24 m (24 m) - Penile Inc (TS)
Clr
Grabowski, Uganda [24] 2003–2007 HIV + ve/-ve men 15–49 936 24 m (6, 12, 24 m) - Penile Pers (TS)
Giuliano, Brazil, Mexico, USA [53] 2005–2009 HIV-ve men 18–70 1159 4 years (every 6 m) Median 27.5 m Penile Inc (NTS, first)
Clr (TS)
Darwich, Spain [20] 2005–2009 HIV + ve men 20- > 69 606 5 years (annual) Median 24 m Penile, anal Incb
Clr
de Pokomandy, Canada [38] 2002–2007 HIV + ve MSM 21–66 247 3 years (every 6 m) Mean 30.8 m Anal Inc
Clr
Nyitray, Brazil, Mexico, USA [35] 2005–2009 Men 18–70 MSM:156
MSW:954
6 m (6 m) Median 6.7 m Anal Inc (TS)
Clr (TS)
Pers (TS)
Goodman, Hawaii, USA [36] 1998–2003 Sexually active women 18–85 431 5 years (every 4 m) Mean 16 m Anal Inc (NTS, first)
Clr (TS)
Shvetsov, Hawaii [39] 1998–2003 Sexually active women 18–85 431 5 years (every 4 m) Mean 16 m Anal Clr (TS)
Moscicki, USA [40] 1990- > 2004 Sexually active women 13–21 75 3–9.5 years (every 4 m) Mean 84.5 m Anal Clr (TS, 2+ neg)
Mullins, USA [37] 1996–2001 HIV + ve and HIV-ve at risk 12–18 496 6 years (annual) Mean 22.4 m Anal Inc (NTS, first)
Glick, USA [33] 2009–2010 MSM 16–30 94 1 year (every 6 m) - Anal Inc (NTS, unclear)
Clr (TS)
Hernandez, USA [34] 1998–2000 HIV + ve MSM Mean 45 369 2 years (every 6 m) - Anal Inc (TS, total)
Lu, Arizona USA [31] 2003–2005 Men 18–44 285 2 years (every 6 m) Median 15.5 m Male genital (shaft, coronal sulcus, glans, scrotum) Inc (TS, total)
Clr (TS)
Hernandez, Hawaii [59] 2004–2006 Circ, UnC men 18–79 357 2.5 years (every 2 m) Mean 14 m Male genital (coronal sulcus, glans, shaft, scrotum) Clr (TS, 2+ neg)
Giuliano, Arizona USA [25] 2003–2005 Men 18–44 290 2 years (every 6 m) Mean 15.5 m Male genital (coronal sulcus, glans, shaft, scrotum) Inc (NTS, first & total)
Pers (NTS)
Clr (NTS)
Morales, Mexico [26] 2003–2004 MSW Median 36 351 3 years (every 4 m) Median 19.8 m Male genital (scrotum, shaft, balano-preputial groove, urinary meatus) Inc (NTS, unclear)
Clr (TS)
Partridge, USA [29] 2003–2006 MSW university students 18–20 240 3 years (every 4 m) Median 12.9 m Male genital (glans &urethral meatus, shaft, scrotum) Inc (NTS, first)
Lajous, Mexio [27] 2000–2003 Male soldiers 16–40 336 1 year (1 year) - Male genital (shaft, coronal sulcus, scrotum urethral meatus) Inc (NTS)
Clr (TS)
Pers (TS)
Albero, Brazil, Mexico, USA [28] 2005–2009 HIV-ve men 18–70 4033 4 years (every 6 m) Median 17.5 m Male genital (shaft, coronal sulcus, glans, scrotum) Inc (NTS, first)
Clr (TS, 2+ neg)
Winer, USA [43] 1990–2000 Female university students 18–20 444 10 year (every 4 m) Mean 41.2 m Vulvovaginal Inc (NTS, first)
Edelstein, USA [45] 2008–2010 Male university students Median 20 212 1.5 years (every 4 m) Median 10.7 m Oral (rinse/OP swab) Inc (NTS, first)
Kero, Finland [48] Not reported Male partners of pregnant women 19–46 131 7 years (2, 6, 12, 24, 36 m & 7 years) Mean at visit 1: 1.8 m, visit 2: 5.9 m,
visit 3: 12.1 m,
visit 4: 24.7 m,
visit 5: 36.8 m,
visit 6: 77.0 m
Oral (scraping) Inc
Kero, Finland [30] 2006–2008 Pregnant women and their male partners Women: 19–46
Men: 20–52
46 women, 46 men 7 years (7 years) - Oral (scraping), male genital (penis/urethra) Inc (NTS)
Clr (TS)
Kero, Finland [46] Not reported Males partners of pregnant women 20–52 129 men 7 years (2, 6, 12, 24, 36, 7 years) Mean in 74 HPV + ve 43.8 m Oral (scraping) Inc (NTS, first)
Clr (TS)
Louvanto, Finland [51] Not reported Women with persistent cervical HPV (≥24 months) and HPV-ve controls Mean 25.2–26.4 43 cases
52 controls
6 years (possibly annual) Mean 65.2 m (cases)
38.4 m (controls)
Oral (scraping) Clr(TS)
Rintala, Finland [50] 2006–2008 Pregnant women and their male partners Women: 19–46
Men: 20–52
331 women, 131 men 2 years (2, 6, 12, 24 m) Mean 26.9 m (women)
25.9 m (men)
Oral (scraping) Inc (NTS, first)
Clr (NTS)
Pickard, USA [49] 2009–2010 University students 18–30 1000 3 m (3 m) - Oral (rinse) Inc (TS)
Clr (TS)
Pers (TS)
D’Souza, USA [15] 2004–2005 HIV + ve and high-risk HIV-ve adult women Not reported 199 6 m (6 m) - Oral (rinse) Inc (TS)
Clr (NTS)
Kurose, Japan [52] 2000–2002 Healthy volunteers 3–85 662 2.5 years (2.5 years) - Oral (scraping) Clr (TS)
Pers (TS)
Darwich, Spain [47] 2005–2009 HIV + ve men Median 41 733 5 years (annual) Median 24 m Oral (scraping/rinse) Clr (TS)
Kreimer, Brazil, Mexico, USA [44] 2007–2009 HIV-ve men 18–70 1626 4 years (every 6 m) Median 12.7 m Oral (rinse) Inc (NTS, first)
Clr (TS)
  1. Abbreviations: IQR interquartile range, MSM men who have sex with men, MSW men who have sex with women, Inc incidence, Clr clearance, Pers persistence, Circ circumcised, UnC uncircumcised, OP oropharyngeal
  2. aIf HPV types present-negative-present in sequential visits then negative result was considered false
  3. bIn calculation of incidence of individual HPV types, subjects were required to be negative for any HPV DNA at baseline at not just negative for that type
  4. cDefinitions for Any or Any HR-HPV infections: TS type specific. For incidence, defined as a positive test for at least one HPV type or HR type not detected at baseline (or other previous visit). For clearance, defined as a negative test for all HPV types or HR-HPV types detected at baseline or newly detected during follow-up. NTS non-type-specific. For incidence, defined as testing negative for any HPV DNA or any HR HPV DNA at baseline. For clearance, defined as at least one negative test for any HPV DNA or any HR-HPV DNA following a positive test at baseline or during follow-up. 2+ neg 2+ negative test results required to define an infection as having cleared. first subjects censored at time of first positive test. total subjects not censored and each visit where new type(s) detected counted as event. unclear unclear if incidence based on firstacquired or total-acquired