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Table 3 Predictors of paradoxical reaction on univariate analysis

From: Paradoxical reaction in tuberculous meningitis: presentation, predictors and impact on prognosis

Characteristic Paradoxical reaction P value Odds ratio 95 % Confidence interval
Present (n=44) Absent (n=97) Lower bound Upper bound
Age in years Mean ± SD 27.295 ± 10.958 30.866 ± 13.446 0.125   −1.004 8.145
Duration of illness (days) Mean ± SD 42.932± 21.583 52.495± 27.538 0.028   0.276 18.850
Gender (female) 26 (59.1 %) 39 (40.2 %) 0.037 2.148 1.04 4.436
HIV positive 11(25 %) 2(2.1 %) <0.001 15.833 3.334 75.184
Fever 43(97.7 %) 95(97.9 %) 0.936 0.905 0.080 10.255
Headache 39(88.6 %) 92(94.8 %) 0.183 0.424 0.116 1.548
Seizure 12(27.3 %) 36(37.1 %) 0.253 0.635 0.291 1.387
Altered Sensorium 15(34.1 %) 29(29.9 %) 0.618 1.213 0.567 2.593
Decreased vision 10(22.7 %) 25(25.8 %) 0.698 0.847 0.366 1.960
Hemiparesis 7(15.9 %) 16(16.5 %) 0.930 0.958 0.363 2.526
Paraparesis 2(4.5 %) 10(10.3 %) 0.341 0.414 0.087 1.976
Meningeal signs 41(93.2 %) 84(86.6 %) 0.253 2.115 0.571 7.837
Lymphadenopathy 10(22.7 %) 3(3.1 %) 0.001 9.216 2.393 35.496
Diplopia 17(38.6 %) 42(43.3 %) 0.603 0.825 0.398 1.707
Cranial Nerve involvement 27(61.4 %) 53(54.6 %) 0.455 1.319 0.638 2.727
Papilloedema 13(29.5 %) 42(43.3 %) 0.121 0.549 0.256 1.177
Hydrocephalus 13(29.5 %) 40(41.2 %) 0.184 0.598 0.279 1.282
Basal Exudates 9(20.5 %) 29(29.9 %) 0.242 0.603 0.257 1.413
Tuberculoma 15(34.1 %) 36(37.1 %) 0.729 0.876 0.415 1.850
Infarct 7(15.9 %) 18(18.6 %) 0.703 0.830 0.319 2.161
Optochiasmatic Arachnoiditis 7(15.9 %) 14(14.4 %) 0.820 1.122 0.418 3.008
Spinal cord 2(4.5 %) 10(10.3 %) 0.256 0.414 0.087 1.976
CRP 19(43.2 %) 38(39.2 %) 0.653 1.180 0.573 2.430
Stage 3 TBM 15(34.1 %) 29(29.9 %) 0.618 1.213 0.567 2.593
Baseline BI (<12) 34(77.3 %) 59(60.8 %) 0.056 2.190 0.970 4.944
Definite TBM 20(45.5 %) 34(35.1 %) 0.312 1.544 .748 3.189
Good outcome (BI>12) 32(72.7 %) 59(64.8 %) 0.171 0.582 0.267 1.268
ESR mm in 1 h Mean ± SD 27.818 ± 4.876 27.093 ± 7.593 0.497   −3.194 1.743
CSF Cells/μL Mean ± SD 200.864 ± 121.261 184.505 ± 208.810 0.630   83.265 56.548
CSF protein (mg/dl) Mean ± SD 188.5382 ± 115.145 283.2649 ± 542.511 0.254   −68.924 258.377
CSF sugar (mg/dl) Mean ± SD 33.620 ± 18.231 36.086 ± 18.617 0.465   4.193 9.125
  1. BI Barthel Index, CRP C-reactive protein, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, ESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus, TBM Tuberculous meningitis
  2. Note: Statistically significant P-values are depicted in italics