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Table 1 Baseline characteristics, radiological and cerebrospinal fluid parameters, and outcome of patients with tuberculous meningitis

From: Paradoxical reaction in tuberculous meningitis: presentation, predictors and impact on prognosis

  Total numbers of patients included (n=141) Paradoxical manifestation (n=44) No paradoxical manifestation (n=97)
Demographic
 Age (Mean±SD) 29.75±12.79 27.295±10.95 30.866±13.44
 Duration of illness (Mean±SD) 49.51±26.13 42.932±21.58 52.495±27.53
 Gender (n, %)    
 Male 76(53.9 %) 18(40.9 %) 58(59.8 %)
 Female 65(46.1 %) 26(59.1 %) 39(40.2)
 HIV (n, %) 13(9.2 %) 11(25 %) 2(2.1 %)
Clinical (n, %)
 BMRC stage 1 31(22.0 %) 8(18.2 %) 23(23.7 %)
 BMRC stage 2 66(46.8 %) 21(47.7 % 45(46.4 %)
 BMRC stage 3 44(31.2 %) 15(34.1 %) 29(29.9 %)
 Fever 138(97.8 %) 43(97.7 %) 95(97.9 %)
 Headache 131(92.90 %) 39(88.6 %) 92(94.8 %)
 Seizure 48(34.0 %) 12(27.3 %) 36(37.1 %)
 Altered Sensorium 44(31.2 %) 15(34.1 %) 29(29.9 %)
 Decreased vision 35(24.8 %) 10(22.7 %) 25(25.8 %)
 Hemiparesis 23(16.3 %) 7(15.9 %) 16(16.5 %)
 Paraparesis 12(8.5 %) 2(4.5 %) 10(10.3 %)
 Meningeal signs 125(88.7 %) 41(93.2 %) 84(86.6 %)
 Lymphadenopathy 13(9.2 %) 10(22.7 %) 3(3.1 %)
 Diplopia 59(41.8 %) 17(38.6 %) 42(43.3 %)
 Cranial Nerve involvement 80(56.7 %) 27(61.4 %) 53(54.6 %)
 Papilloedema 50(62.5 %) 13(29.5 %) 42(43.3 %)
Imaging (n, %)
 Hydrocephalus 53(37.6 %) 13(29.5 %) 40(41.2 %)
 Basal Exudates 38(27.0 %) 9(20.5 %) 29(29.9 %)
 Tuberculoma 51(36.2 %) 15(34.1 %) 36(37.1 %)
 Infarct 25(17.7 %) 7(15.9 %) 18(18.6 %)
 Optochiasmatic arachnoiditis 21(14.9 %) 7(15.9 %) 14(14.4 %)
 Spinal arachnoiditis 12(8.5 %) 2(4.5 %) 10(10.3 %)
Cerebrospinal fluid
 White blood cells (cells/mL±SD) 189.610±185.66 200.864±121.26 184.505±208.809
 Protein mg% 253.704±455.84 188.5382±115.145 283.2649±542.511
 Sugar mg% 35.311±18.46 33.620±18.231 36.086±18.61
 Neutrophil differential in percentage, mean±SD 17.21±19.250 19.705±21.368 16.072±18.210
 Lymphocyte differential in percentage (mean±SD) 83.65±18.02 80.295±21.368 85.175±16.166
 AFB smear (n, %) 4(2.8 %) 1(2.27 %) 3(3.09 %)
 AFB culture positive (n, %) 21(14.9 %) 11(25 %) 10(10.30 %)
 TB PCR-positive (n, %) 50(35.5 %) 22(50 %) 28(28.86 %)
Diagnostic category (n, %)
 Definite 54(38.3 %) 20(45.5 %) 34(35.1 %)
 Probable 62(44.0 %) 19(43.2 %) 43(44.3 %)
 Possible 25(17.7 %) 5(11.4 %) 20(20.6 %
Disability (n, %)
 Baseline BI(<12) 93(66.0 %) 34(77.3 %) 59(60.8 %)
 Baseline BI(>12) 48(34.0 %) 10(22.7 %) 38(39.2 %)
Outcome (n, %)
 Poor (BI<12) 50(35.5 %) 12(27.3 %) 38(39.2 %)
 Good (BI>12) 91(64.5 %) 32(72.7 %) 59(60.8 %)
  1. AFB acid fast bacilli, BMRC British Medical Research Council, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, BI Barthel index, TB PCR tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction