Skip to main content

Table 1 Bivariable association of need for ART change and potential predictor characteristics

From: Predicting resistance as indicator for need to switch from first-line antiretroviral therapy among patients with elevated viral loads: development of a risk score algorithm

Predictor Overall (n = 290) N (%) Resistant (n = 75)a N (%) Not resistant or resuppressed (n = 215) N (%) Unadjusted prevalence OR (95 % CI) p-value
Age, years      0.09
  ≤ 30 82 (28.3) 27 (36.0) 55 (25.6) 1.64 (0.93–2.87)  
  > 30 208 (71.7) 48 (64.0) 160 (74.4) 1.0  
Sex      0.3
 Male 154 (53.1) 36 (48.0) 118 (54.9) 0.76 (0.45, 1.28)  
 Female 136 (46.9) 39 (28.7) 97 (71.3) 1.0  
BMI, kg/m2      0.002
 Normal/low (<24.9) 229 (79.0) 50 (21.8) 179 (78.2) 1.0  
 High (>25.0) 31 (21.0) 25 (41.0) 36 (59.0) 2.48 (1.37–4.52)  
CD4 at screening, cells/mm3      0.12
  ≤ 100 84 (71.0) 27 (36.0) 57 (26.5) 1.56 (0.89, 2.73)  
  > 100 206 (29.0) 48 (23.3) 158 (76.7) 1.0  
Treatment initiation VL, copies/ml      0.001
  ≤ 100,000 135 (46.6) 23 (17.0) 112 (83.0) 1.0  
  > 100,000 155 (53.4) 52 (33.5) 103 (66.5) 2.46 (1.41, 4.30)  
AIDS history      0.55
 Yes 26 (9.0) 8 (30.8) 18 (69.2) 1.31 (0.54–3.14)  
 No 264 (91.0) 67 (25.4) 197 (74.6) 1.0  
History of ART exposure      0.02
 Yes 4 (1.4) 3 (75.0) 1 (25.0) 8.92 (0.91–87.1)  
 No 286 (98.6) 72 (25.2) 214 (74.8) 1.0  
History of TB      0.14
 Yes 60 (20.7) 11 (18.3) 49 (81.7) 1.0  
 No 230 (79.3) 64 (27.8) 166 (72.2) 1.72 (0.84–3.51)  
Reported symptoms      0.22
 Yes 37 (71.2) 11 (29.7) 26 (70.3) 2.75 (0.53–14.3)  
 No 15 (28.9) 2 (13.3) 13 (86.7) 1.0  
Imperfect adherence      0.11
 Yes 67 (25.6) 22 (32.8) 45 (67.2) 1.63 (0.89, 3.00)  
 No 195 (74.4) 45 (23.1) 150 (76.9) 1.0  
Pill count, % taken      0.29
  < 80 % 11 (22.4) 6 (54.5) 5 (45.5) 2.06 (0.53, 8.00)  
  ≥ 80 % 38 (77.6) 14 (36.8) 24 (63.2) 1.0  
Regimen frequency      0.84
 Once daily (FTC/TDF/EFV QHS) 144 (49.7) 38 (26.4) 106 (73.6) 1.06 (0.62, 1.79)  
 Twice daily (3TC/ZDV BID + EFV QHS) 146 (50.3) 37 (25.3) 109 (74.7) 1.0  
Time on therapy, monthsb      <0.001
  < 7 102 (35.2) 42 (41.2) 60 (58.8) 5.1 (2.6–9.8)  
 7–12 56 (19.3) 17 (30.4) 39 (69.6) 3.2 (1.5–6.8)  
  > 12 132 (45.5) 16 (12.1) 116 (87.9) 1.0  
VLc, copies/ml      <0.001
  ≤ 10,000 175 (60.4) 25 (14.3) 150 (85.7) 1.0  
 10,001–100,000 70 (24.1) 34 (48.6) 36 (51.4) 5.7 (3.0–10.7)  
  > 100,000 45 (15.5) 16 (35.6) 29 (64.4) 3.3 (1.6–6.9)  
CD4 at failure, cells/mm3      0.18
  ≤ 200 77 (27.6) 24 (31.2) 53 (68.8) 1.49 (0.83–2.7)  
  > 200 202 (72.4) 47 (23.3) 155 (76.7) 1.0  
Any change in therapy during study      0.28
 Yes 42 (14.5) 8 (19.1) 34 (80.1) 0.64 (0.38–1.4)  
 No 248 (85.5) 67 (27.0) 181 (73.0) 1.0  
  1. aResistance indicates identified NRTI or NNRTI resistance mutations detected on stored specimens at time of first elevated (>1000 copies/ml) viral load
  2. bTherapy duration defined by days, <7 months is <213; 7–12 months is 212–395, >12 months is >395 days
  3. cViral load at time of first VL ≥1000 copies/ml
  4. 3TC lamivudine, ART antiretroviral therapy, BID twice daily, BMI body-mass index, CI confidence interval, EFV efavirenz, FTC emtricitabine, NNRTI non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, NRTI nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, OR odds ratio, QHS nightly, TB tuberculosis, TDF tenofovir, VL viral load, ZDV zidovudine