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Table 1 Antibodies to EBOV and potential risk factors for Ebola virus disease fever in pygmies residing in the Watsa Region, DRC

From: High prevalence of IgG antibodies to Ebola virus in the Efé pygmy population in the Watsa region, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Potential risk factors: N exposed (% exposed) Exposed
# IgG pos. (%)
Non exposed
# IgG pos. (%)
χ2-test p OR (95 % CI)
Risk factors for primary transmission     
Subsistence activities     
 Hunting: 180 (60) 37 (20.6) 19 (15.8) 0.3 1.38 (0.72, 2.68)
 Entering caves: 295 (98) 55 (18.6) 1 (20.0) 0.66b 1.19 (0.64, 2.23)
Contacts with wild animals     
 Rodents     
 Touched: 216 (72) 42 (19.4) 14 (6.7) 0.58 1.21 (0.60, 2.54)
 eatena : 127 (42) 20 (15.8) 36 (20.8) 0.27 0.71 (0.37–1.35)
 bitten by : 91 (30) 15 (16.5) 41(19.6) 0.52 0.81 (0 .39, 1.60)
 any contact : 238 (79) 45 (18.9) 11 (17.7) 0.83 1.08 (0.53, 2.33)
Bats     
 Touched : 224 (75) 43 (19.6) 13 (17.1) 0.69 1.15 (0.56, 2.49)
 eatena : 160 (53) 33 (20.6) 23 (16.4) 0.35 1.03 (0 .21, 10.10)
 bitten by : 57 (19) 9 (16.1) 47 (19.3) 0.53 0.78 (0.32, 1.76)
 any contact : 233 (78) 45 (19.3) 11 (16.4) 0.59 1.21 (0.60, 2.61)
Monkeys, apes     
 Touched : 273 (91) 52 (19.0) 4 (14.8) 0.80b 1.35 (0 .44, 5.61)
 eatena : 289 (96) 54 (18.7) 2 (18.2) 1.00b 1.03 (0 .21, 10.10)
 bitten by : 16 (5) 3 (18.8) 53 (18.7) 1.00b 1.01 (0 .18, 3.84)
 any contact : 294 (98) 56 (19.0) 0 (0.0) 0.28b  
 Wild animals: any contact : 296 (97) 56 (18.9) 0 (0.0) 0.43b  
Risk factors for secondary transmission     
Contact with someone suffering from HF§     
 had someone with HF in the household : 66 (22) 7 (10.6) 49 (20.9) 0.06 0.45 (0.16, 1.07)
 been in the same room with someone with HF : 47 (16) 8 (17.0) 48 (18.9) 0.75 0.88 (0.33, 2.06)
 worked with someone with HF : 61 (20) 9 (14.7) 47 (19.7) 0.38 0.71 (0.29, 1.59)
 participated in funeral of someone with HF : 65 (22) 12 (18.5) 44 (18.7) 0.96 0.98 (0.44, 2.07)
 touched someone with HF : 57 (19) 11 (19.3) 45 (18.5) 0.89 1.05 (0.45, 2.27)
 touched blood, urine, faeces of someone with HF : 34 (11) 8 (23.5) 48 (18.0) 0.44 1.40 (0.51, 3.42)
 touched remains of someone with HF : 44 (15) 12 (27.3) 44 (17.2) 0.11 1.81 (0.78, 3.94)
 any contact : 102 (34) 16 (15.7) 40 (20.2) 0.34 0.74 (0.38, 1.38)
 any direct contact (touched) : 79 (26) 16 (20.3) 40 (18.1) 0.67 1.15 (0.59, 2.18)
Invasive medical treatment     
 ever received injection : 263 (88) 51 (19.4) 5 (13.5) 0.39 1.54 (0.56, 5.31)
 ever received surgical or obstetric care : 124 (41) 27 (21.8) 29 (16.5) 0.24 1.41 (0 .75, 2.63)
 any invasive medical treatment ever : 278 (93) 54 (19.4) 2 (9.1) 0.18b 2.41 (0.63, 15.66)
Traditional treatment     
 ever had scarification : 294 (98) 54 (18.4) 2 (33.3) 0.4 0 .45 (0.06, 5.11)
  1. aBush meat often is smoked, grilled or cooked; exposure to viable virus may therefore be more likely to happen during preparation of such meat for consumption than during consumption itself
  2. bFisher’s Exact Test
  3. §: HF (haemorrhagic fever): severe illness with high fever and bleeding from the nose, mouth, and/or anus