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Table 7 Baseline characteristics and outcomes of treatments in malarious children treated with artesunate-amodiaquine, artemether-lumefantrine or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine

From: Clinical illness and outcomes in Nigerian children with late-appearing anaemia after artemisinin-based combination treatments of uncomplicated falciparum malaria

Parameters Initial studya Later studyb
AA (n = 360) AL (n = 132) P value AA (n = 29) AL (n = 29) DHP (n = 59) P value
Age (year)        
 Mean (95 % CI) 7.1(6.8–7.5) 6.1 (5.5–6.6) 0.001 6.8 (5.3–8.3) 7.5 (6.1–8.9) 9.5 (8.4–10.5) 0.01
 No <5 years (%) 85 (24) 50 (38) 0.002 11 (38) 10 (34) 10 (17) 0.06
Body temperature (°C)        
 Mean (95 % CI) 38.3 (38.2–38.4) 38.4 (38.2–38.6) 0.37 38 (37.5–38.4) 37.8 (37.2–38.3) 37.7 (37.2–38.3) 0.76
 No. ≥ 37.4 °C (%) 283 (79) 100 (76) 0.58 15 (52) 16 (55) 32 (54) 0.96
Haematocrit (%)        
 Mean (95 % CI) 32.3 (31.9–32.8) 31.2 (30.5–32) 0.02 30.3 (29.2–32.3) 31.5 (29.7–33.2) 33.4 (33.2–34.5) 0.01
 No. < 30 % (%) 78 (22) 45 (34) 0.01 11 (38) 6 (21) 11 (19) 0.12
Parasitaemia (μL−1)        
 Geometric mean 59,978 60,210 0.48 55,803 45,054 33,543 0.07
 Range 1636–1,096,636 1657–900,532   2100–249,600 2220–454,875 2000–458,750  
 No. > 100,000 μL−1 (%) 107(30) 43 (33) 0.62 10 (34) 8 (28) 13 (22) 0.46
 No. > 100,000 μL−1 (%) 30 (8) 13 (10) 0.73 0 (0) 3 (10) 4 (7) 0.68
No. with parasitaemia on day 1 (%) 22 (6) 23 (17) 0.05 14 (48) 15 (52) 28 (47) 0.93
Parasite positivity on day 3 (%) 2 (0.6) 1 (0.7) 1.0 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) -
PRRD1        
 Geometric mean 3.3 × 104 1.6 × 104 0.27 2.4 × 103 1.3 × 103 1.9 × 104 0.84
 Range 2.0 × 100-1.1 × 106 2.1 × 100-9.0 × 105   3.3 × 100-2.4 × 106 7.1 × 10−1-4.5 × 105 5.6 × 10−1-1.3 × 105
PRRD2        0.08
 Geometric mean 5.7 × 104 6.0 × 104 0.4 4.1 × 104 4.5 × 104 2.6 × 104
 Range 1.6 × 101-1.1 × 106 1.6 × 103-9.0 × 105   2.1 × 103-2.4 × 106 2.2 × 103-4.5 × 105 3.5 × 101-4.6 × 105
Parasitological efficacy        
 ACPR 348 136   27 28 59  
 LPF 12 4   2 1 0  
 LCF 0 0   0 0 0  
 ETF 0 0   0 0 0  
 Cure rate (%) 98.7 97.1 1.0 93.1 95.8 100 1.0
Fever clearance time (day)        
 Mean (95 % CI) 1.1 (1–1.1) 1.1 (1–1.2) 0.28 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 1.3 (1–1.5) 1.1 (1–1.2) 0.3
Parasite clearance time (day)        
 Mean (95 % CI) 1.1 (1.05–1.1) 1.2 (1.1–1.3) 0.004 1.6 (1.4–1.9) 1.6 (1.4–1.8) 1.5 (1.4–1.7) 0.84
Anaemia recovery time (day)        
 Mean (95 % CI) 11.1 (9.5–12.7) 9.4 (7.3–11.5) 0.22 18.9 (13.1–24.7) 22.8 (21–45) 11.2 (5–17.4) 0.09
  1. AA artesunate-amodiaquine, AL artemether-lumefantrine, DHP dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, PRR D1 parasite reduction ratio 1 day after treatment started, PRR D1 parasite reduction ratio 2 days after treatment started, ACPR adequate clinical and parasitological responses, LPF late parasitological failure, LCF late clinical failure, ETF early treatment failure; a, study conducted between 2008 and 2013, b, study conducted in 2014