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Table 3 Performance of Gram stain and bacterial culture of heart valve tissue compared to 16S broad range PCR/sequencing for diagnosis of endocarditis

From: Development and evaluation of a novel fast broad-range 16S ribosomal DNA PCR and sequencing assay for diagnosis of bacterial infective endocarditis: multi-year experience in a large Canadian healthcare zone and a literature review

Method Sensitivity Specificity PPV NPV Diagnostic efficiency
Gram Stain of Heart Valve Tissue 26.0 % (15.1–40.6) 100 % (78.1–100.0) 100 % (71.7–100.0) 32.7 % (21.0–46.8) 45.6 % (33.8–57.4)
Heart Valve Tissue Culture 46 % (33.0–59.6) 100.0 % (83.1–100.0) 100.0 % (83.1–100.0) 41.3 % (27.0–56.7) 60.2 % (50.8–68.0)
16S Broad Range PCR/Sequencing 92.0 % (84.6–96.5) 77.8 % (57.4–90.4) 92.0 % (84.6–96.5) 77.8 % (57.4–90.4) 88.2 % (77.4–94.9)
  1. Diagnostic performance of tissue culture and 16S Broad Range PCR sequencing in 68 samples (i.e. 50 cases had Definite IE, 8 cases had Possible IE, and 10 Cases were controls with no clinical or laboratory evidence of IE). Calculations are based on a definite diagnosis of endocarditis by the Duke’s criteria as the gold standard for diagnosis. 95 % CI in brackets. PPV positive predictive value, NPV negative predictive value